Do not deduct the following.
- Personal or living expenses (such as taxes, insurance, or repairs on your home) that do not produce farm income.
- Expenses of raising anything you or your family used.
- The value of animals you raised that died.
- Inventory losses.
- Personal losses.
If you were repaid for any part of an expense, you must subtract the amount you were repaid from the deduction.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP05648c7f
If you produced real or tangible personal property or acquired property for resale, certain expenses must be included in inventory costs or capitalized. These expenses include the direct costs of the property and the share of any indirect costs allocable to that property. However, these rules generally do not apply to expenses of:
- Producing any plant that has a preproductive period of 2 years or less,
- Raising animals, or
- Replanting certain crops if they were lost or damaged by reason of freezing temperatures, disease, drought, pests, or casualty.
Exceptions (1) and (2) do not apply to tax shelters, farming syndicates, partnerships, or corporations required to use the accrual method of accounting under section 447 or 448(a)(3).
If you capitalize your expenses, do not reduce your deductions on lines 12 through 34e by the capitalized expenses. Instead, enter the total amount capitalized in parentheses on line 34f and enter
263A in the space to the left of the total. See Preproductive period expenses on page F-7 for details.
But you may be able to currently deduct rather than capitalize the expenses of producing a plant with a preproductive period of more than 2 years. See Election to deduct certain preproductive period expenses next.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP5d69b378
If the preproductive period of any plant you produce is more than 2 years, you can elect to currently deduct the expenses rather than capitalize them. But you cannot make this election for the costs of planting or growing citrus or almond groves that are incurred before the end of the fourth tax year beginning with the tax year you planted them in their permanent grove. You are treated as having made the election by deducting the preproductive period expenses in the first tax year for which you can make this election and by applying the special rules, discussed below.
In the case of a partnership or S corporation, the election must be made by the partner, shareholder, or member. This election cannot be made by tax shelters, farming syndicates, partnerships, or corporations required to use the accrual method of accounting under section 447 or 448(a)(3).
Unless you obtain IRS consent, you must make this election for the first tax year in which you engage in a farming business involving the production of property subject to the capitalization rules. You cannot revoke this election without IRS consent.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP028f04d3
If you make the election to deduct preproductive expenses for plants:
- Any gain you realize when disposing of the plants is ordinary income up to the amount of the preproductive expenses you deducted, and
- The alternative depreciation rules apply to property placed in service in any tax year your election is in effect.
For details, see Uniform Capitalization Rules in chapter 6 of Pub. 225.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP11c85471
Generally, if you use the cash method of accounting and your prepaid farm supplies are more than 50% of your other deductible farm expenses, your deduction for those supplies may be limited. Prepaid farm supplies include expenses for feed, seed, fertilizer, and similar farm supplies not used or consumed during the year. They also include the cost of poultry that would be allowable as a deduction in a later tax year if you were to (a) capitalize the cost of poultry bought for use in your farming business and deduct it ratably over the lesser of 12 months or the useful life of the poultry, and (b) deduct the cost of poultry bought for resale in the year you sell or otherwise dispose of it.
If the limit applies, you can deduct prepaid farm supplies that do not exceed 50% of your other deductible farm expenses in the year of payment. You can deduct the excess only in the year you use or consume the supplies (other than poultry, which is deductible as explained above). For details and exceptions to these rules, see chapter 4 of Pub. 225.
Whether or not this 50% limit applies, your expenses for livestock feed paid during the year but consumed in the later year, may be subject to the rules explained later in the line 18 instructions.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP5a765d42
You can deduct the actual expenses of operating your car or truck or take the standard mileage rate. You must use actual expenses if you used your vehicle for hire or you used five or more vehicles simultaneously in your farming business (such as in fleet operations). You cannot use actual expenses for a leased vehicle if you previously used the standard mileage rate for that vehicle.
You can take the standard mileage rate for 2008 only if you:
- Owned the vehicle and used the standard mileage rate for the first year you placed the vehicle in service, or
- Leased the vehicle and are using the standard mileage rate for the entire lease period (except the period, if any, before 1998).
If you take the standard mileage rate, multiply the number of business miles driven:
- Before July 1, 2008, by 50.5 cents, and
- After June 30, 2008, by 58.5 cents.
Add to this amount your parking fees and tolls, and enter the total on line 12. Do not deduct depreciation, rent or lease payments, or your actual operating expenses.
If you deduct actual expenses:
- Include on line 12 the business portion of expenses for gasoline, oil, repairs, insurance, tires, license plates, etc., and
- Show depreciation on line 16 and rent or lease payments on line 26a.
If you claim any car or truck expenses (actual or the standard mileage rate), you must provide the information requested on Form 4562, Part V. Be sure to attach Form 4562 to your return.
For details, see Pub. 463.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP67ce653e
Deductible soil and water conservation expenses generally are those that are paid to conserve soil and water or to prevent erosion of land used for farming. These expenses include (but are not limited to) costs for the following.
- The treatment or movement of earth, such as leveling, grading, conditioning, terracing, contour furrowing, and the restoration of soil fertility.
- The construction, control, and protection of diversion channels, drainage ditches, irrigation ditches, earthen dams, watercourses, outlets, and ponds.
- The eradication of brush.
- The planting of windbreaks.
These expenses can be deducted only if they are consistent with a conservation plan approved by the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the Department of Agriculture for the area in which your land is located. If no plan exists, the expenses must be consistent with a plan of a comparable state agency. You cannot deduct the expenses if they were paid or incurred for land used in farming in a foreign country.
Do not deduct expenses you paid or incurred to drain or fill wetlands, or to prepare land for center pivot irrigation systems.
Your deduction cannot exceed 25% of your gross income from farming (excluding certain gains from selling assets such as farm machinery and land). If your conservation expenses are more than the limit, the excess can be carried forward and deducted in later tax years. However, the amount deductible for any 1 year cannot exceed the 25% gross income limit for that year.
For details, see chapter 5 of Pub. 225.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP58762b27
Enter amounts paid for custom hire or machine work (the machine operator furnished the equipment).
Do not include amounts paid for rental or lease of equipment that you operated yourself. Instead, report those amounts on line 26a.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP4e57c50e
You can deduct depreciation of buildings, improvements, cars and trucks, machinery, and other farm equipment of a permanent nature.
Do not deduct depreciation on your home, furniture or other personal items, land, livestock you bought or raised for resale, or other property in your inventory.
You can also elect under section 179 to expense a portion of the cost of certain property you bought in 2008 for use in your farming business. The section 179 election is made on Form 4562.
For information about depreciation and the section 179 deduction, see chapter 7 of Pub. 225.
For details on the special depreciation allowance and section 179 deduction for qualified property in the GO Zone, see chapter 3 of Pub. 946.
See the Instructions for Form 4562 for information on when you must complete and attach Form 4562.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP54eea04c
Deduct contributions to employee benefit programs that are not an incidental part of a pension or profit-sharing plan included on line 25. Examples are accident and health plans, group-term life insurance, and dependent care assistance programs. If you made contributions on your behalf as a self-employed person to a dependent care assistance program, complete Form 2441, Parts I and III, to figure your deductible contributions to that program.
Contributions you made on your behalf as a self-employed person to an accident and health plan or for group-term life insurance are not deductible on Schedule F. However, you may be able to deduct on Form 1040, line 29 (or on Form 1040NR, line 28), the amount you paid for health insurance on behalf of yourself, your spouse, and dependents even if you do not itemize your deductions. See the instructions for Form 1040, line 29, or Form 1040NR, line 28, for details. taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP5ae4430d
If you use the cash method, you cannot deduct when paid the cost of feed your livestock will consume in a later year unless all of the following apply.
- The payment was for the purchase of feed rather than a deposit.
- The prepayment had a business purpose and was not made merely to avoid tax.
- Deducting the prepayment will not materially distort your income.
If all of the above apply, you can deduct the prepaid feed when paid, subject to the overall limit for Prepaid farm supplies explained on page F-4. If all of the above do not apply, you can deduct the prepaid feed only in the year it is consumed.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP47d455af
Do not include the cost of transportation incurred in purchasing livestock held for resale as freight paid. Instead, add these costs to the cost of the livestock, and deduct them when the livestock is sold.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP47a27732
Deduct on this line premiums paid for farm business insurance. Deduct on line 17 amounts paid for employee accident and health insurance. Amounts credited to a reserve for self-insurance or premiums paid for a policy that pays for your lost earnings due to sickness or disability are not deductible.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP32b804d6taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP7771d680
The tax treatment of interest expense differs depending on its type. For example, home mortgage interest and investment interest are treated differently.
Interest allocation rules require you to allocate (classify) your interest expense so it is deducted on the correct line of your return and receives the right tax treatment. These rules could affect how much interest you are allowed to deduct on Schedule F.
Generally, you allocate interest expense by tracing how the proceeds of the loan are used. See chapter 4 of Pub. 535 for details.
If you paid interest on a debt secured by your main home and any of the proceeds from that debt were used in your farming business, see chapter 4 of Pub. 535 to figure the amount to include on lines 23a and 23b.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP25a55df6
If you have a mortgage on real property used in your farming business (other than your main home), enter on line 23a the interest you paid for 2008 to banks or other financial institutions for which you received a Form 1098 (or similar statement). If you did not receive a Form 1098, enter the interest on line 23b.
If you paid more mortgage interest than is shown on Form 1098, see chapter 4 of Pub. 535 to find out if you can deduct the additional interest. If you can, include the amount on line 23a. Attach a statement to your return explaining the difference and enter
See attached in the margin next to line 23a.
If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for and paid interest on the mortgage and the other person received the Form 1098, include your share of the interest on line 23b. Attach a statement to your return showing the name and address of the person who received the Form 1098. In the margin next to line 23b, enter
Do not deduct interest you prepaid in 2008 for later years; include only the part that applies to 2008.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP253864ea
Enter the amounts you paid for farm labor. Do not include amounts paid to yourself. Reduce your deduction by the amounts claimed on:
- Form 5884, Work Opportunity Credit, line 2;
- Form 5884-A, Credits for Affected Midwestern Disaster Area Employers, lines 2 and 6;
- Form 8844, Empowerment Zone and Renewal Community Employment Credit, line 2;
- Form 8845, Indian Employment Credit, line 4; and
- Form 8861, Welfare-to-Work Credit, line 2.
Include the cost of boarding farm labor but not the value of any products they used from the farm. Include only what you paid household help to care for farm laborers.
If you provided taxable fringe benefits to your employees, such as personal use of a car, do not include in farm labor the amounts you depreciated or deducted elsewhere.
Enter your deduction for contributions to employee pension, profit-sharing, or annuity plans. If the plan included you as a self-employed person, enter contributions made as an employer on your behalf on Form 1040, line 28 (or on Form 1040NR, line 27), not on Schedule F.
Generally, you must file the applicable form listed below if you maintain a pension, profit-sharing, or other funded-deferred compensation plan. The filing requirement is not affected by whether or not the plan qualified under the Internal Revenue Code, or whether or not you claim a deduction for the current tax year. There is a penalty for failure to timely file these forms.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP025275ff
File this form if you have a one-participant retirement plan that meets certain requirements. A one-participant plan is a plan that covers only you (or you and your spouse).taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP09b75246
File this form for a plan that does not meet the requirements for filing Form 5500-EZ.
For details, see Pub. 560.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP1ec63c38
If you rented or leased vehicles, machinery, or equipment, enter on line 26a the business portion of your rental cost. But if you leased a vehicle for a term of 30 days or more, you may have to reduce your deduction by an inclusion amount. See Leasing a Car in Pub. 463 to figure this amount.
Enter on line 26b amounts paid to rent or lease other property such as pasture or farmland.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP47bc7053
Enter amounts you paid for incidental repairs and maintenance of farm buildings, machinery, and equipment that do not add to the property's value or appreciably prolong its life.
Do not deduct repairs or maintenance on your home.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP3e0e361d
You can deduct the following taxes on this line.
- Real estate and personal property taxes on farm business assets.
- Social security and Medicare taxes you paid to match what you are required to withhold from farm employees' wages.
- Federal unemployment tax.
- Federal highway use tax.
- Contributions to state unemployment insurance fund or disability benefit fund if they are considered taxes under state law.
Do not deduct the following taxes on this line.
- Federal income taxes, including your self-employment tax. However, you can deduct one-half of your self-employment tax on Form 1040, line 27.
- Estate and gift taxes.
- Taxes assessed for improvements, such as paving and sewers.
- Taxes on your home or personal use property.
- State and local sales taxes on property purchased for use in your farming business. Instead, treat these taxes as part of the cost of the property.
- Other taxes not related to your farming business.
Enter amounts you paid for gas, electricity, water, and other utilities for business use on the farm. Do not include personal utilities. You cannot deduct the base rate (including taxes) of the first telephone line into your residence, even if you use it for your farming business. But you can deduct expenses you paid for your farming business that are more than the cost of the base rate for the first phone line. For example, if you had a second phone line, you can deduct the business percentage of the charges for that line, including the base rate charges.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP7dadf2ff
Include all ordinary and necessary farm expenses not deducted elsewhere on Schedule F, such as advertising, office supplies, etc. Do not include fines or penalties paid to a government for violating any law.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP2cfe01c0
Any loss from this activity that was not allowed as a deduction last year because of the at-risk rules is treated as a deduction allocable to this activity in 2008. However, for the loss to be deductible, the amount taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP366259fe
at risk must be increased.
See chapter 10 of Pub. 535.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP1383c934
If your business began in 2008, you can elect to deduct up to $5,000 of certain business start-up costs. This limit is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount by which your start-up costs exceed $50,000. You can amortize any remaining qualified business start-up costs over 180 months. For details, see chapters 4 and 7 of Pub. 225. For amortization that begins in 2008, you must complete and attach Form 4562.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP45484d7b
You may be able to deduct certain expenses for business use of your home, subject to limitations. Use the worksheet in Pub. 587 to figure your allowable deduction. Do not use Form 8829.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP4f66cf8d
Reforestation costs are generally capital expenditures. However, for each qualified timber property, you can elect to expense up to $10,000 ($5,000 if married filing separately) of qualifying reforestation costs paid or incurred in 2008.
You can elect to amortize the remaining costs over 84 months.
The amortization election does not apply to trusts and the expense election does not apply to estates and trusts. For details on reforestation expenses, see chapters 4 and 7 of Pub. 225. For amortization that begins in 2008, you must complete and attach Form 4562.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP7452659c
You can include on this line fees charged by accountants and attorneys that are ordinary and necessary expenses directly related to your farming business. Include fees for tax advice and for the preparation of tax forms related to your farming business. Also include expenses incurred in resolving asserted tax deficiencies related to your farming business.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP1379707e
You can deduct the amount you paid for tools that have a short life or cost a small amount, such as shovels and rakes.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP3935b22c
Generally, you can deduct expenses for farm business travel and 50% of your business meals and entertainment. But there are exceptions and limitations. See the instructions for Schedule C, lines 24a and 24b, that begin on page C-6.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP4799703e
If you had preproductive period expenses in 2008 that you are capitalizing, enter the total of these expenses in parentheses on line 34f and enter
263A in the space to the left of the total.
For details, see page F-4, Capitalizing costs of property, and Uniform Capitalization Rules in chapter 6 of Pub. 225.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP06c03ea8
If line 34f is a negative amount, subtract it from the total of lines 12 through 34e. Enter the result on line 35.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP05f16339
If you have a loss, the amount of loss you can deduct this year may be limited. Individuals, estates, and trusts must complete line 37 before entering the loss on line 36. If you checked the
No box on line E, also see the Instructions for Form 8582.
Enter the net profit or deductible loss here and on Form 1040, line 18, and Schedule SE, line 1a. Nonresident aliens—enter the net profit or deductible loss here and on Form 1040NR, line 19. Estates and trusts—enter the net profit or deductible loss here and on Form 1041, line 6. Partnerships—do not complete line 37; instead, stop here and enter the profit or loss on this line and on Form 1065, line 5 (or Form 1065-B, line 7).taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP3bd76e70
If you and your spouse had community income and are filing separate returns, see page SE-2 of the instructions for Schedule SE before figuring self-employment tax.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP05faf8f5
If you have a net profit on line 36, this amount is earned income and may qualify you for the earned income credit if you meet certain conditions. See the instructions for Form 1040, lines 64a and 64b, for details.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP2a090d06
If you received social security retirement or disability benefits in addition to CRP payments, the CRP payments are not subject to self-employment tax. You will deduct these payments from your net farm profit or loss on line 1b of Schedule SE. Do not make any adjustment on Schedule F.taxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP0d80a60btaxmap/instr/i1040sf-006.htm#TXMP03d93f0f
Generally, if you have a loss from a farming activity and amounts invested in the activity for which you are not at risk, you must complete Form 6198 to figure your allowable loss. The at-risk rules generally limit the amount of loss (including loss on the disposition of assets) you can claim to the amount you could actually lose in the activity.
Check box 37b if you have amounts invested in this activity for which you are not at risk, such as the following.
- Nonrecourse loans used to finance the activity, to acquire property used in the activity, or to acquire the activity that are not secured by your own property (other than property used in the activity). However, there is an exception for certain nonrecourse financing borrowed by you in connection with holding real property.
- Cash, property, or borrowed amounts used in the activity (or contributed to the activity, or used to acquire the activity) that are protected against loss by a guarantee, stop-loss agreement, or other similar arrangement (excluding casualty insurance and insurance against tort liability).
- Amounts borrowed for use in the activity from a person who has an interest in the activity, other than as a creditor, or who is related under section 465(b)(3)(C) to a person (other than you) having such an interest.
If all amounts are at risk in this activity, check box 37a. If you checked the
Yes box on line E, enter your loss on line 36. But if you checked the
No box on line E, you may need to complete Form 8582 to figure your allowable loss to enter on line 36. See the Instructions for Form 8582.
If you checked box 37b, first complete Form 6198 to determine the amount of your deductible loss. If you checked the
Yes box on line E, enter that amount on line 36. But if you checked the
No box on line E, your loss may be further limited. See the Instructions for Form 8582. If your at-risk amount is zero or less, enter -0- on line 36. Be sure to attach Form 6198 to your return. If you checked box 37b and you do not attach Form 6198, the processing of your tax return may be delayed.
Any loss from this activity not allowed for 2008 only because of the at-risk rules is treated as a deduction allocable to the activity in 2009.
For details, see Pub. 925 and the
Instructions for Form 6198.