Maximum tax rate on qualified dividends and net capital gain reduced.(p110)
Beginning in 2008, the 5% maximum tax rate on qualified dividends and net capital gain (the excess of net long-term capital gain over net short-term capital loss) is reduced to 0 (zero)%. This reduction applies for both regular and alternative minimum tax. The 15% maximum tax rate on qualified dividends and net capital gain has not changed. See Capital Gain Tax Rates later.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#TXMP411f59e1
This chapter discusses how to report capital gains and losses from sales, exchanges, and other dispositions of investment property on Schedule D of Form 1040. The discussion includes the following topics.
- How to report short-term gains and losses.
- How to report long-term gains and losses.
- How to figure capital loss carryovers.
- How to figure your tax on a net capital gain.
- An illustrated example of how to complete Schedule D.
If you sell or otherwise dispose of property used in a trade or business or for the production of income, see Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, before completing Schedule D.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#TXMP69db2ff7
You may want to see:
Publication 537 Installment Sales 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 550 Investment Income and Expenses Form (and Instructions) Schedule D (Form 1040) : Capital Gains and Losses 4797 : Sales of Business Property 6252 : Installment Sale Income 8582 : Passive Activity Loss Limitationstaxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033469
Report capital gains and losses on Schedule D (Form 1040). Enter your sales and trades of stocks, bonds, etc., and real estate (if not reported on Form 4684, 4797, 6252, 6781, or 8824) on line 1 of Part I or line 8 of Part II, as appropriate. Include all these transactions even if you did not receive a Form 1099-B, Proceeds From Broker and Barter Exchange Transactions, or Form 1099-S, Proceeds From Real Estate Transactions (or substitute statement). You can use Schedule D-1 as a continuation schedule to report more transactions.
Be sure to add all sales price entries in column (d) of lines 1 and 2 and enter the total on line 3. Also add all sales price entries in column (d) of lines 8 and 9 and enter the total on line 10. Then add the following amounts reported to you for 2008 on Forms 1099-B and Forms 1099-S (or on substitute statements):
- Proceeds from transactions involving stocks, bonds, and other securities, and
- Gross proceeds from real estate transactions (other than the sale of your main home if you had no taxable gain) not reported on another form or schedule.
If this total is more than the total of lines 3 and 10, attach a statement to your return explaining the difference.
You cannot use the installment method to report a gain from the sale of stock or securities traded on an established securities market. You must report the entire gain in the year of sale (the year in which the trade date occurs). taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033471
If you have gains or losses from a passive activity, you may also have to report them on Form 8582. In some cases, the loss may be limited under the passive activity rules. Refer to Form 8582 and its separate instructions for more information about reporting capital gains and losses from a passive activity. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033472
If you sold property, such as stocks, bonds, or certain commodities, through a broker, you should receive Form 1099-B or equivalent statement from the broker. Use the Form 1099-B or the equivalent statement to complete Schedule D.
Report the gross proceeds shown in box 2 of Form 1099-B as the gross sales price in column (d) of either line 1 or line 8 of Schedule D, whichever applies. However, if the broker advises you, in box 2 of Form 1099-B, that gross proceeds (gross sales price) less commissions and option premiums were reported to the IRS, enter that net sales price in column (d) of either line 1 or line 8 of Schedule D, whichever applies.
If the net sales price is entered in column (d), do not include the commissions and option premiums in column (e).taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink1000107590
If a corporation in which you own stock has had a change in control or a substantial change in capital structure, you should receive Form 1099-CAP or an equivalent statement from the corporation. Use the Form 1099-CAP or equivalent statement to figure the gain to report on Schedule D (Form 1040). You cannot claim a loss on Schedule D (Form 1040) as a result of this transaction.
Report the aggregate amount received shown in box 2 of Form 1099-CAP as the gross sales price in column (d) of either line 1 or line 8 of Schedule D, whichever applies.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033473
If you sold or traded reportable real estate, you generally should receive from the real estate reporting person a Form 1099-S showing the gross proceeds.
"Reportable real estate" is defined as any present or future ownership interest in any of the following:
- Improved or unimproved land, including air space,
- Inherently permanent structures, including any residential, commercial, or industrial building,
- A condominium unit and its accessory fixtures and common elements, including land, and
- Stock in a cooperative housing corporation (as defined in section 216 of the Internal Revenue Code).
A "real estate reporting person" could include the buyer's attorney, your attorney, the title or escrow company, a mortgage lender, your broker, the buyer's broker, or the person acquiring the biggest interest in the property.
Your Form 1099-S will show the gross proceeds from the sale or exchange in box 2. Follow the instructions for Schedule D to report these transactions and include them on line 1 or 8 as appropriate. However, report like-kind exchanges on Form 8824 instead.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033474
If you receive gross proceeds as a nominee (that is, the gross proceeds are in your name but actually belong to someone else), report on Schedule D, lines 3 and 10, only the proceeds that belong to you. Then add the following amounts reported to you for 2008 on Forms 1099-B and 1099-S (or substitute statements) that you are not reporting on another form or schedule included with your return:
- Proceeds from transactions involving stocks, bonds, and other securities, and
- Gross proceeds from real estate transactions (other than the sale of your main home if you are not required to report it).
If the total of (1) and (2) is more than the total of lines 3 and 10, attach a statement to your return explaining the reason for the difference.
If you received gross proceeds as a nominee in 2008, you must file a Form 1099-B or Form 1099-S for those proceeds with the IRS. Send the Form 1099-B or Form 1099-S with a Form 1096, Annual Summary and Transmittal of U.S. Information Returns, to your Internal Revenue Service Center by March 2, 2009 (March 31, 2009, if you file Form 1099-B or Form 1099-S electronically). Give the actual owner of the proceeds Copy B of the Form 1099-B or Form 1099-S by February 17, 2009. On Form 1099-B, you should be listed as the "Payer." The other owner should be listed as the "Recipient." On Form 1099-S, you should be listed as the "Filer." The other owner should be listed as the "Transferor." You do not, however, have to file a Form 1099-B or Form 1099-S to show proceeds for your spouse. For more information about the reporting requirements and the penalties for failure to file (or furnish) certain information returns, see the General Instructions for Forms 1099, 1098, 5498, and W-2G.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033476
If you sell a block of stock or other property that you bought at various times, report the short-term gain or loss from the sale on one line in Part I of Schedule D and the long-term gain or loss on one line in Part II. Write "Various" in column (b) for the "Date acquired." See the Comprehensive Example
later in this chapter.
Add to your cost or other basis any expense of sale such as brokers' fees, commissions, state and local transfer taxes, and option premiums. Enter this adjusted amount in column (e) of either Part I or Part II of Schedule D, whichever applies, unless you reported the net sales price amount in column (d).
For more information about adjustments to basis, see chapter 13
Capital gain or loss on the sale or trade of investment property held 1 year or less is a short-term capital gain or loss. You report it in Part I of Schedule D. If the amount you report in column (f) is a loss, show it in parentheses.
You combine your share of short-term capital gain or loss from partnerships, S corporations, and fiduciaries, and any short-term capital loss carryover, with your other short-term capital gains and losses to figure your net short-term capital gain or loss on line 7 of Schedule D.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033479
A capital gain or loss on the sale or trade of investment property held more than 1 year is a long-term capital gain or loss. You report it in Part II of Schedule D. If the amount you report in column (f) is a loss, show it in parentheses.
You also report the following in Part II of Schedule D:
- Undistributed long-term capital gains from a mutual fund (or other regulated investment company) or real estate investment trust (REIT),
- Your share of long-term capital gains or losses from partnerships, S corporations, and fiduciaries,
- All capital gain distributions from mutual funds and REITs not reported directly on line 10 of Form 1040A or line 13 of Form 1040, and
- Long-term capital loss carryovers.
The result after combining these items with your other long-term capital gains and losses is your net long-term capital gain or loss (line 15 of Schedule D).taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033480
You do not have to file Schedule D if both of the following are true.
- The only amounts you would have to report on Schedule D are capital gain distributions from box 2a of Form 1099-DIV (or substitute statement).
- You do not have an amount in box 2b, 2c, or 2d of any Form 1099-DIV (or substitute statement).
If both of the above statements are true, report your capital gain distributions directly on line 13 of Form 1040 and check the box on line 13. Also, use the Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet in the Form 1040 instructions to figure your tax.
You can report your capital gain distributions on line 10 of Form 1040A, instead of on Form 1040, if both of the following are true.
- None of the Forms 1099-DIV (or substitute statements) you received have an amount in box 2b, 2c, or 2d.
- You do not have to file Form 1040 for any other capital gains or losses.
To figure your total net gain or loss, combine your net short-term capital gain or loss (line 7) with your net long-term capital gain or loss (line 15). Enter the result on Schedule D, Part III, line 16. If your losses are more than your gains, see Capital Losses,
next. If both lines 15 and 16 are gains and line 43 of Form 1040 is more than zero, see Capital Gain Tax Rates
If your capital losses are more than your capital gains, you can claim a capital loss deduction. Report the deduction on line 13 of Form 1040, enclosed in parentheses.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033483
Your allowable capital loss deduction, figured on Schedule D, is the lesser of:
- $3,000 ($1,500 if you are married and file a separate return), or
- Your total net loss as shown on line 16 of Schedule D.
You can use your total net loss to reduce your income dollar for dollar, up to the $3,000 limit. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033484
If you have a total net loss on line 16 of Schedule D that is more than the yearly limit on capital loss deductions, you can carry over the unused part to the next year and treat it as if you had incurred it in that next year. If part of the loss is still unused, you can carry it over to later years until it is completely used up.
When you figure the amount of any capital loss carryover to the next year, you must take the current year's allowable deduction into account, whether or not you claimed it.
When you carry over a loss, it remains long term or short term. A long-term capital loss you carry over to the next tax year will reduce that year's long-term capital gains before it reduces that year's short-term capital gains. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033485
The amount of your capital loss carryover is the amount of your total net loss that is more than the lesser of:
- Your allowable capital loss deduction for the year, or
- Your taxable income increased by your allowable capital loss deduction for the year and your deduction for personal exemptions.
If your deductions are more than your gross income for the tax year, use your negative taxable income in computing the amount in item (2).
Complete the Capital Loss Carryover Worksheet in Publication 550 to determine the part of your capital loss for 2008 that you can carry over to 2009.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033486
Bob and Gloria sold securities in 2008. The sales resulted in a capital loss of $7,000. They had no other capital transactions. Their taxable income was $26,000. On their joint 2008 return, they can deduct $3,000. The unused part of the loss, $4,000 ($7,000 − $3,000), can be carried over to 2009.
If their capital loss had been $2,000, their capital loss deduction would have been $2,000. They would have no carryover.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033487
When you figure your capital loss carryover, use your short-term capital losses first, even if you incurred them after a long-term capital loss. If you have not reached the limit on the capital loss deduction after using the short-term capital losses, use the long-term capital losses until you reach the limit. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033488
A capital loss sustained by a decedent during his or her last tax year (or carried over to that year from an earlier year) can be deducted only on the final income tax return filed for the decedent. The capital loss limits discussed earlier still apply in this situation. The decedent's estate cannot deduct any of the loss or carry it over to following years. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033489
If you and your spouse once filed separate returns and are now filing a joint return, combine your separate capital loss carryovers. However, if you and your spouse once filed a joint return and are now filing separate returns, any capital loss carryover from the joint return can be deducted only on the return of the spouse who actually had the loss. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033490
The tax rates that apply to a net capital gain are generally lower than the tax rates that apply to other income. These lower rates are called the maximum capital gain rates.
The term "net capital gain" means the amount by which your net long-term capital gain for the year is more than your net short-term capital loss.
For 2008, the maximum capital gain rates are 0%, 15%, 25%, or 28%. See Table 16-1
If you figure your tax using the maximum capital gain rates and the regular tax computation results in a lower tax, the regular tax computation applies.
All of your net capital gain is from selling collectibles, so the capital gain rate would be 28%. Because you are single and your taxable income is $25,000, none of your taxable income will be taxed above the 15% rate. The 28% rate does not apply.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033493
If you claim a deduction for investment interest, you may have to reduce the amount of your net capital gain that is eligible for the capital gain tax rates. Reduce it by the amount of the net capital gain you choose to include in investment income when figuring the limit on your investment interest deduction. This is done on the Schedule D Tax Worksheet or the Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet. For more information about the limit on investment interest, see Interest Expenses
in chapter 3 of Publication 550.
Table 16-1. What Is Your Maximum Capital Gain Rate?
|IF your net capital gain is from ...||THEN your |
gain rate is ...
|gain on qualified small business stock minus the section 1202 exclusion||28%|
|unrecaptured section 1250 gain||25%|
|other gain1 and the regular tax rate that would apply is 25% or higher ||15%|
|other gain1 and the regular tax rate that would apply is lower than 25% ||0%|
|1 Other gain means any gain that is not collectibles gain, gain on qualified small business stock, or|
unrecaptured section 1250 gain.
This is gain or loss from the sale or trade of a work of art, rug, antique, metal (such as gold, silver, and platinum bullion), gem, stamp, coin, or alcoholic beverage held more than 1 year. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033495
If you realized a gain from qualified small business stock that you held more than 5 years, you generally can exclude up to 50% of your gain from income. The exclusion can be up to 60% for certain empowerment zone business stock. The eligible gain minus your section 1202 exclusion is a 28% rate gain. See Gains on Qualified Small Business Stock in chapter 4 of Publication 550. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033496
Generally, this is any part of your capital gain from selling section 1250 property (real property) that is due to depreciation (but not more than your net section 1231 gain), reduced by any net loss in the 28% group. Use the Unrecaptured Section 1250 Gain Worksheet in the Schedule D instructions to figure your unrecaptured section 1250 gain. For more information about section 1250 property and section 1231 gain, see chapter 3 of Publication 544. taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033497
Use the Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet or the Schedule D Tax Worksheet (whichever applies) to figure your tax if you have qualified dividends or net capital gain. You have net capital gain if Schedule D, lines 15 and 16, are both gains.taxmap/pub17/p17-089.htm#en_us_publink100033498
You must use the Schedule D Tax Worksheet in the Schedule D instructions to figure your tax if:
- You have to file Schedule D, and
- Schedule D, line 18 (28% rate gain) or line 19 (unrecaptured section 1250 gain), is more than zero.
See Comprehensive Example
, later, for an example of how to figure your tax using the Schedule D Tax Worksheet.
If you do not have to use the Schedule D Tax Worksheet (as explained above) and any of the following apply, use the Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet in the instructions for Form 1040 or Form 1040A (whichever you file) to figure your tax.
- You received qualified dividends. (See Qualified Dividends in chapter 8.)
- You do not have to file Schedule D and you received capital gain distributions. (See Capital gain distributions only, earlier.)
- Schedule D, lines 15 and 16, are both more than zero.