Generally, federal income tax withholding applies to the taxable part of payments made from pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, annuity, and certain deferred compensation plans; from individual retirement arrangements (IRAs); and from commercial annuities. The method and rate of withholding depends on (a) the kind of payment, (b) whether the payments are delivered outside the United States or its possessions, and (c) whether the payee is a nonresident alien individual, a nonresident alien beneficiary, or a foreign estate. Qualified distributions from Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s are nontaxable and, therefore, not subject to withholding. See Payments to Foreign Persons and Payments Outside the United States
later for special withholding rules that apply to payments outside the United States and payments to foreign persons.
The recipient of pension or annuity payments can choose not to have federal income tax withheld from the payments by using line 1 of Form W-4P. For an estate, the election to have no federal income tax withheld can be made by the executor or personal representative of the decedent. The estate's EIN should be entered in the area reserved for "Your social security number" on Form W-4P.taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052318taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052319
Withholding from periodic payments of a pension or annuity is figured in the same manner as withholding from wages. Periodic payments are made in installments at regular intervals over a period of more than 1 year. They may be paid annually, quarterly, monthly, etc.
If the recipient wants income tax withheld, he or she must designate the number of withholding allowances on line 2 of Form W-4P and can designate an additional amount to be withheld on line 3. If the recipient does not want any federal income tax withheld from his or her periodic payments, he or she can check the box on line 1 of Form W-4P and submit the form to you. If the recipient does not submit Form W-4P, you must withhold on periodic payments as if the recipient were married claiming three withholding allowances. Generally, this means that tax will be withheld if the pension or annuity is at least $1,600 a month.
If you receive a Form W-4P that does not contain the recipient's correct taxpayer identification number (TIN), you must withhold as if the recipient were single claiming zero withholding allowances even if the recipient chooses not to have income tax withheld.
There are some kinds of periodic payments for which the recipient cannot use Form W-4P because they are already defined as wages subject to federal income tax withholding. These include retirement pay for service in the U.S. Armed Forces and payments from certain nonqualified deferred compensation plans and compensation plans of exempt organizations described in section 457.
The recipient's Form W-4P stays in effect until he or she changes or revokes it. You must notify recipients each year of their right to choose not to have federal income tax withheld or to change their previous choice.taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052320
You must withhold at a flat 10% rate from nonperiodic payments (but see Eligible Rollover Distribution—20% Withholding
next) unless the recipient chooses not to have income tax withheld. Distributions from an IRA that are payable on demand are treated as nonperiodic payments. A recipient can choose not to have income tax withheld (if permitted) from a nonperiodic payment by submitting Form W-4P (containing his or her correct TIN) and checking the box on line 1. Generally, this choice not to have federal income tax withheld will apply to any later payment from the same plan. A recipient cannot use line 2 for nonperiodic payments. But he or she may use line 3 to specify an additional amount that he or she wants withheld.
If a recipient submits a Form W-4P that does not contain his or her correct TIN, you cannot honor his or her request not to have income tax withheld and you must withhold 10% of the payment for federal income tax.taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052321
Distributions from qualified pension or annuity plans (for example, 401(k) pension plans, IRAs, and section 457(b) plans maintained by a governmental employer) or tax-sheltered annuities that are eligible to be rolled over tax free to an IRA or qualified plan are subject to a flat 20% withholding rate. The 20% withholding rate is required and a recipient cannot choose to have less federal income tax withheld from eligible rollover distributions. However, you should not withhold federal income tax if the entire distribution is transferred by the plan administrator in a direct rollover to a traditional IRA, qualified pension plan, governmental section 457(b) plan (if allowed by the plan), section 403(b) contract or tax-sheltered annuity.taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052322
Distributions that are (a) required by law, (b) one of a specified series of equal payments, or (c) qualifying "hardship" distributions are not "eligible rollover distributions" and are not subject to the mandatory 20% federal income tax withholding. See Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax, for details. See also Nonperiodic Payments—10% Withholding
Unless the recipient is a nonresident alien, withholding (in the manner described above) is required on any periodic or nonperiodic payments that are delivered outside the United States or its possessions. A recipient cannot choose not to have federal income tax withheld.
In the absence of a treaty exemption, nonresident aliens, nonresident alien beneficiaries, and foreign estates generally are subject to a 30% withholding tax under section 1441 on the taxable portion of a periodic or nonperiodic pension or annuity payment that is from U.S. sources. However, most tax treaties provide that private pensions and annuities are exempt from withholding and tax. Also, payments from certain pension plans are exempt from withholding even if no tax treaty applies. See Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities, and Publication 519. A foreign person should submit Form W-8BEN, Certificate of Foreign Status of Beneficial Owner for United States Tax Withholding, to you before receiving any payments. The Form W-8BEN must contain the foreign person's TIN.taxmap/pubs/p15a-007.htm#en_us_publink100052324
By January 31 of the next year, you must furnish a statement on Form 1099-R, Distributions From Pensions, Annuities, Retirement or Profit-Sharing Plans, IRAs, Insurance Contracts, etc., showing the total amount of the recipient's pension or annuity payments and the total federal income tax you withheld during the prior year. Report income tax withheld on Form 945, Annual Return of Withheld Federal Income Tax, not on Form 941 or Form 944.
If the recipient is a foreign person who has provided you with Form W-8BEN, you instead must furnish a statement to the recipient on Form 1042-S, Foreign Person's U.S. Source Income Subject to Withholding, by March 15 for the prior year. Report federal income tax withheld on Form 1042, Annual Withholding Tax Return for U.S. Source Income of Foreign Persons.