The rent you receive for the use of your farmland is generally rental income, not farm income. However, if you materially participate in farming operations on the land, the rent is farm income. See Landlord Participation in Farming in chapter 12.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076966
If you pasture someone else's livestock and take care of them for a fee, the income is from your farming business. You must enter it as Other income on Schedule F. If you simply rent your pasture for a flat cash amount without providing services, report the income as rent on Schedule E (Form 1040), Part I.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076967
You must include rent you receive in the form of crop shares in income in the year you convert the shares to money or the equivalent of money. It does not matter whether you use the cash method of accounting or an accrual method of accounting.
If you materially participate in operating a farm from which you receive rent in the form of crop shares or livestock, the rental income is included in self-employment income. (See Landlord Participation in Farming in chapter 12.) Report the rental income on Schedule F.
If you do not materially participate in operating the farm, report this income on Form 4835 and carry the net income or loss to Schedule E (Form 1040). The income is not included in self-employment income.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076968
Crop shares you receive as a landlord and feed to your livestock are considered converted to money when fed to the livestock. You must include the fair market value of the crop shares in income at that time. You are entitled to a business expense deduction for the livestock feed in the same amount and at the same time you include the fair market value of the crop share as rental income. Although these two transactions cancel each other for figuring adjusted gross income on Form 1040, they may be necessary to figure your self-employment tax. See chapter 12.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076969
Crop shares you receive as a landlord and give to others are considered converted to money when you make the gift. You must report the fair market value of the crop share as income, even though someone else receives payment for the crop share.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076970
A tenant farmed part of your land under a crop-share arrangement. The tenant harvested and delivered the crop in your name to an elevator company. Before selling any of the crop, you instructed the elevator company to cancel your warehouse receipt and make out new warehouse receipts in equal amounts of the crop in the names of your children. They sell their crop shares in the following year and the elevator company makes payments directly to your children.
In this situation, you are considered to have received rental income and then made a gift of that income. You must include the fair market value of the crop shares in your income for the tax year you gave the crop shares to your children.taxmap/pubs/p225-007.htm#en_us_publink100076971
If you are involved in a rental or crop-share lease arrangement, any loss from these activities may be subject to the limits under the passive loss rules. See Publication 925 for information on these rules.