If you are self-employed as a farmer, use Schedule F (Form 1040) to figure your self-employment earnings. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077487
If you are a member of a partnership that carries on a trade or business, the partnership should report your self-employment earnings in box 14, code A, of your Schedule K-1 (Form 1065). Box 14 of Schedule K-1 may also provide amounts for gross farming or fishing income (code B) and gross nonfarm income (code C). Use these amounts if you use the farm or nonfarm optional method to figure net earnings from self-employment (see Methods for Figuring Net Earnings, later).
If you are a general partner, you may need to reduce these reported earnings by amounts you claim as a section 179 deduction, unreimbursed partnership expenses, or depletion on oil and gas properties.
If the amount reported is a loss, include only the deductible amount when you figure your total self-employment earnings.
For more information, see the Partner's Instructions for Schedule K-1 (Form 1065).
For general information on partnerships, see Publication 541.taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077488
If you have self-employment earnings from more than one trade, business, or profession, you generally must combine the net profit or loss from each to determine your total self-employment earnings. A loss from one business reduces your profit from another business. However, do not combine earnings from farm and nonfarm businesses if you are using one of the optional methods (discussed later) to figure net earnings. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077489
If any of the income from a farm or business, other than a partnership, is community property under state law, it is included in the self-employment earnings of the spouse carrying on the trade or business. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077490
Lost income payments received from insurance or other sources for reducing or stopping farming activities are included in self-employment earnings. These include USDA payments to compensate for lost income resulting from reductions in tobacco quotas and allotments. Even if you are not farming when you receive the payment, it is included in self-employment earnings if it relates to your farm business (even though it is temporarily inactive). A connection exists if it is clear the payment would not have been made but for your conduct of your farm business. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077491
A gain or loss from the disposition of property that is neither stock in trade nor held primarily for sale to customers is not included in self-employment earnings. It does not matter whether the disposition is a sale, exchange, or involuntary conversion. For example, gains or losses from the disposition of the following types of property are not included in self-employment earnings.
- Investment property.
- Depreciable property or other fixed assets used in your trade or business.
- Livestock held for draft, breeding, sport, or dairy purposes, and not held primarily for sale, regardless of how long the livestock was held, or whether it was raised or purchased.
- Unharvested standing crops sold with land held more than 1 year.
- Timber, coal, or iron ore held for more than 1 year if an economic interest was retained, such as a right to receive coal royalties.
A gain or loss from the cutting of timber is not included in self-employment earnings if the cutting is treated as a sale or exchange. For more information on electing to treat the cutting of timber as a sale or exchange, see Timber in chapter 8.taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077492
Wages and salaries received for services performed as an employee and covered by social security or railroad retirement are not included in self-employment earnings.
Wages paid in kind to you for agricultural labor, such as commodity wages, are not included in self-employment earnings.taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077493
Retirement income received by a partner from his or her partnership under a written plan is not included in self-employment earnings if all the following apply.
- The retired partner performs no services for the partnership during the year.
- The retired partner is owed only the retirement payments.
- The retired partner's share (if any) of the partnership capital was fully paid to the retired partner.
- The payments to the retired partner are lifelong periodic payments.
As a general rule, income and deductions from rentals and from personal property leased with real estate are not included in determining self-employment earnings. However, income and deductions from farm rentals, including government commodity program payments received by a landowner who rents land, are included if the rental arrangement provides that the landowner will, and does, materially participate in the production or management of production of the farm products on the land. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077495
Rent paid in the form of crop shares is included in self-employment earnings for the year you sell, exchange, give away, or use the crop shares if you meet one of the four material participation tests (discussed next) at the time the crop shares are produced. Feeding such crop shares to livestock is considered using them. Your gross income for figuring your self-employment earnings includes the fair market value of the crop shares when they are used as feed. taxmap/pubs/p225-052.htm#en_us_publink100077496
You materially participate if you have an arrangement with your tenant for your participation and you meet one of the following tests.
- You do any three of the following.
- Pay, using cash or credit, at least half the direct costs of producing the crop or livestock.
- Furnish at least half the tools, equipment, and livestock used in the production activities.
- Advise or consult with your tenant.
- Inspect the production activities periodically.
- You regularly and frequently make, or take an important part in making, management decisions substantially contributing to or affecting the success of the enterprise.
- You work 100 hours or more spread over a period of 5 weeks or more in activities connected with agricultural production.
- You do things that, considered in their totality, show you are materially and significantly involved in the production of the farm commodities.
These tests may be used as general guides for determining whether you are a material participant.
Drew Houston agrees to produce a crop on J. Clarke's cotton farm with each receiving half the proceeds. Clarke advises Houston when to plant, spray, and pick the cotton. During the growing season, Clarke inspects the crop every few days to determine whether Houston is properly taking care of the crop. Houston furnishes all labor needed to grow and harvest the crop.
The management decisions made by J. Clarke in connection with the care of the cotton crop and his regular inspection of the crop establish that he participates to a material degree in the cotton production operations. The income Clarke receives from his cotton farm is included in his self-employment earnings.