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previous page Previous Page: Publication 535 - Business Expenses - Depletion
next page Next Page: Publication 535 - Business Expenses - Timber
 Use previous pagenext page to find additional occurrences of topic items.Index for this Publication
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159013

Mineral Property(p33)


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Mineral Property

Mineral property includes oil and gas wells, mines, and other natural deposits (including geothermal deposits). For this purpose, the term "property" means each separate interest you own in each mineral deposit in each separate tract or parcel of land. You can treat two or more separate interests as one property or as separate properties. See section 614 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations for rules on how to treat separate mineral interests.
There are two ways of figuring depletion on mineral property. Generally, you must use the method that gives you the larger deduction. However, unless you are an independent producer or royalty owner, you generally cannot use percentage depletion for oil and gas wells. See Oil and Gas Wells, later.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159014

Cost Depletion(p33)


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previous topic occurrence Cost Depletion next topic occurrence

To figure cost depletion you must first determine the following.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159015

Basis for depletion.(p33)


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To figure the property's basis for depletion, subtract all the following from the property's adjusted basis.
  1. Amounts recoverable through:
    1. Depreciation deductions,
    2. Deferred expenses (including deferred exploration and development costs), and
    3. Deductions other than depletion.
  2. The residual value of land and improvements at the end of operations.
  3. The cost or value of land acquired for purposes other than mineral production.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159016

Adjusted basis.(p33)
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The adjusted basis of your property is your original cost or other basis, plus certain additions and improvements, and minus certain deductions such as depletion allowed or allowable and casualty losses. Your adjusted basis can never be less than zero. See Publication 551, Basis of Assets, for more information on adjusted basis.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159017

Total recoverable units.(p33)


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The total recoverable units is the sum of the following.
You must estimate or determine recoverable units (tons, pounds, ounces, barrels, thousands of cubic feet, or other measure) of mineral products using the current industry method and the most accurate and reliable information you can obtain.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159018

Number of units sold.(p33)


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You determine the number of units sold during the tax year based on your method of accounting. Use the following table to make this determination.
IF you
use ...
THEN the units sold during the year are ...
The cash method of accountingThe units sold for which you receive payment during the tax year (regardless of the year of sale).
An accrual method of accountingThe units sold based on your inventories and method of accounting for inventory.
The number of units sold during the tax year does not include any for which depletion deductions were allowed or allowable in earlier years.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159020

Figuring the cost depletion deduction.(p33)


rule
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Once you have figured your property's basis for depletion, the total recoverable units, and the number of units sold during the tax year, you can figure your cost depletion deduction by taking the following steps.
StepActionResult
1Divide your property's
basis for depletion by
total recoverable units.
Rate per unit.
2Multiply the rate per
unit by units sold
during the tax year.
Cost depletion deduction.
Note.You must keep accounts for the depletion of each property and adjust these accounts each year for units sold and depletion claimed.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159023

Elective safe harbor for owners of oil and gas property.(p33)


rule
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Owners of oil and gas property may use an elective safe harbor in determining the property's recoverable reserves for purposes of computing cost depletion. If this election is made, special rules apply. See Revenue Procedure 2004-19 on page 563 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2004-10, available at www.irs.gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb04-10.pdf.
To make the election, attach a statement to your timely filed (including extensions) original return for the first tax year for which the safe harbor is elected. The statement must indicate that you are electing the safe harbor provided by Revenue Procedure 2004-19. The election, if made, is effective for the tax year in which it is made and all subsequent years. It cannot be revoked for the tax year in which it is elected, but may be revoked in a later year. Once revoked, it cannot be re-elected for the next 5 years.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159024

Percentage Depletion(p33)


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previous topic occurrence Percentage Depletion next topic occurrence

To figure percentage depletion, you multiply a certain percentage, specified for each mineral, by your gross income from the property during the tax year.
The rates to be used and other conditions and qualifications for oil and gas wells are discussed later under Independent Producers and Royalty Owners and under Natural Gas Wells. Rates and other rules for percentage depletion of other specific minerals are found later in Mines and Geothermal Deposits.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159025

Gross income.(p33)


rule
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When figuring your percentage depletion, subtract from your gross income from the property the following amounts. A bonus payment includes amounts you paid as a lessee to satisfy a production payment retained by the lessor.
Use the following fraction to figure the part of the bonus you must subtract.
No. of units sold in the tax year
Recoverable units from the property
×Bonus Payments
For oil and gas wells and geothermal deposits, gross income from the property is defined later under Oil and Gas Wells. For property other than a geothermal deposit or an oil and gas well, gross income from the property is defined later under Mines and Geothermal Deposits.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159027

Taxable income limit.(p34)


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The percentage depletion deduction generally cannot be more than 50% (100% for oil and gas property) of your taxable income from the property figured without the depletion deduction and the domestic production activities deduction.
Taxable income from the property means gross income from the property minus all allowable deductions (excluding any deduction for depletion or qualified domestic production activities) attributable to mining processes, including mining transportation. These deductible items include, but are not limited to, the following.
The following rules apply when figuring your taxable income from the property for purposes of the taxable income limit.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159028

Oil and Gas Wells(p34)


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Oil and Gas Wells

You cannot claim percentage depletion for an oil or gas well unless at least one of the following applies.
If you are an independent producer or royalty owner, see Independent Producers and Royalty Owners, next.
For information on the depletion deduction for wells that produce natural gas that is either sold under a fixed contract or produced from geopressured brine, see Natural Gas Wells, later.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159029

Independent Producers and Royalty Owners(p34)


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Independent Producers and Royalty Owners

If you are an independent producer or royalty owner, you figure percentage depletion using a rate of 15% of the gross income from the property based on your average daily production of domestic crude oil or domestic natural gas up to your depletable oil or natural gas quantity. However, certain refiners, as explained next, and certain retailers and transferees of proven oil and gas properties, as explained later, cannot claim percentage depletion. For information on figuring the deduction, see Figuring percentage depletion, later.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159030

Refiners who cannot claim percentage depletion.(p34)


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You cannot claim percentage depletion if you or a related person refine crude oil and you and the related person refined more than 75,000 barrels on any day during the tax year based on average (rather than actual) daily refinery runs for the tax year. The average daily refinery run is computed by dividing total refinery runs for the tax year by the total number of days in the tax year.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159031

Related person.(p34)
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You and another person are related persons if either of you holds a significant ownership interest in the other person or if a third person holds a significant ownership interest in both of you.
For example, a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust and anyone who holds a significant ownership interest in it are related persons. A partnership and a trust are related persons if one person holds a significant ownership interest in each of them.
For purposes of the related person rules, significant ownership interest means direct or indirect ownership of 5% or more in any one of the following.
Any interest owned by or for a corporation, partnership, trust, or estate is considered to be owned directly both by itself and proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159032

Retailers who cannot claim percentage depletion.(p34)


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You cannot claim percentage depletion if both the following apply.
  1. You sell oil or natural gas or their by-products directly or through a related person in any of the following situations.
    1. Through a retail outlet operated by you or a related person.
    2. To any person who is required under an agreement with you or a related person to use a trademark, trade name, or service mark or name owned by you or a related person in marketing or distributing oil, natural gas, or their by-products.
    3. To any person given authority under an agreement with you or a related person to occupy any retail outlet owned, leased, or controlled by you or a related person.
  2. The combined gross receipts from sales (not counting resales) of oil, natural gas, or their by-products by all retail outlets taken into account in (1) are more than $5 million for the tax year.
For the purpose of determining if this rule applies, do not count the following.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159033

Related person.(p34)
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To determine if you and another person are related persons, see Related person under Refiners who cannot claim percentage depletion, earlier.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159034

Sales through a related person.(p34)
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You are considered to be selling through a related person if any sale by the related person produces gross income from which you may benefit because of your direct or indirect ownership interest in the person.
You are not considered to be selling through a related person who is a retailer if all the following apply.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159035

Transferees who cannot claim percentage depletion.(p34)


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You cannot claim percentage depletion if you received your interest in a proven oil or gas property by transfer after 1974 and before October 12, 1990. For a definition of the term "transfer," see section 1.613A-7(n) of the regulations. For a definition of the term "interest in proven oil or gas property," see section 1.613A-7(p) of the regulations.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159036

Figuring percentage depletion.(p34)


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Generally, as an independent producer or royalty owner, you figure your percentage depletion by computing your average daily production of domestic oil or gas and comparing it to your depletable oil or gas quantity. If your average daily production does not exceed your depletable oil or gas quantity, you figure your percentage depletion by multiplying the gross income from the oil or gas property (defined later) by 15%. If your average daily production of domestic oil or gas exceeds your depletable oil or gas quantity, you must make an allocation as explained later under Average daily production exceeds depletable quantities.
In addition, there is a limit on the percentage depletion deduction. See Taxable income limit, later.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159037

Average daily production.(p35)


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Figure your average daily production by dividing your total domestic production of oil or gas for the tax year by the number of days in your tax year.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159038

Partial interest.(p35)
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If you have a partial interest in the production from a property, figure your share of the production by multiplying total production from the property by your percentage of interest in the revenues from the property.
You have a partial interest in the production from a property if you have a net profits interest in the property. To figure the share of production for your net profits interest, you must first determine your percentage participation (as measured by the net profits) in the gross revenue from the property. To figure this percentage, you divide the income you receive for your net profits interest by the gross revenue from the property. Then multiply the total production from the property by your percentage participation to figure your share of the production.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159039

Example.(p35)

John Oak owns oil property in which Paul Elm owns a 20% net profits interest. During the year, the property produced 10,000 barrels of oil, which John sold for $200,000. John had expenses of $90,000 attributable to the property. The property generated a net profit of $110,000 ($200,000 − $90,000). Paul received income of $22,000 ($110,000 × .20) for his net profits interest.
Paul determined his percentage participation to be 11% by dividing $22,000 (the income he received) by $200,000 (the gross revenue from the property). Paul determined his share of the oil production to be 1,100 barrels (10,000 barrels × 11%).
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159040

Depletable oil or natural gas quantity.(p35)


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Generally, your depletable oil quantity is 1,000 barrels. Your depletable natural gas quantity is 6,000 cubic feet multiplied by the number of barrels of your depletable oil quantity that you choose to apply. If you claim depletion on both oil and natural gas, you must reduce your depletable oil quantity (1,000 barrels) by the number of barrels you use to figure your depletable natural gas quantity.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159041

Example.(p35)

You have both oil and natural gas production. To figure your depletable natural gas quantity, you choose to apply 360 barrels of your 1000-barrel depletable oil quantity. Your depletable natural gas quantity is 2.16 million cubic feet of gas (360 × 6000). You must reduce your depletable oil quantity to 640 barrels (1000 − 360).
If you have production from marginal wells, see section 613A(c)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code to figure your depletable oil or natural gas quantity.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159042

Business entities and family members.(p35)
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You must allocate the depletable oil or gas quantity among the following related persons in proportion to each entity's or family member's production of domestic oil or gas for the year. A related person is anyone mentioned in the related persons discussion under Nondeductible loss in chapter 2 of Publication 544, except that for purposes of this allocation, item (1) in that discussion includes only an individual, his or her spouse, and minor children.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159043

Controlled group of corporations.(p35)
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Members of the same controlled group of corporations are treated as one taxpayer when figuring the depletable oil or natural gas quantity. They share the depletable quantity. Under this rule, a controlled group of corporations is defined in section 1563(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, except that the stock ownership requirement in that definition is "more than 50%" rather than "at least 80%."
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159044

Gross income from the property.(p35)


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For purposes of percentage depletion, gross income from the property (in the case of oil and gas wells) is the amount you receive from the sale of the oil or gas in the immediate vicinity of the well. If you do not sell the oil or gas on the property, but manufacture or convert it into a refined product before sale or transport it before sale, the gross income from the property is the representative market or field price (RMFP) of the oil or gas, before conversion or transportation.
If you sold gas after you removed it from the premises for a price that is lower than the RMFP, determine gross income from the property for percentage depletion purposes without regard to the RMFP.
Gross income from the property does not include lease bonuses, advance royalties, or other amounts payable without regard to production from the property.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159045

Average daily production exceeds depletable quantities.(p35)


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If your average daily production for the year is more than your depletable oil or natural gas quantity, figure your allowance for depletion for each domestic oil or natural gas property as follows.
  1. Figure your average daily production of oil or natural gas for the year.
  2. Figure your depletable oil or natural gas quantity for the year.
  3. Figure depletion for all oil or natural gas produced from the property using a percentage depletion rate of 15%.
  4. Multiply the result figured in (3) by a fraction, the numerator of which is the result figured in (2) and the denominator of which is the result figured in (1). This is your depletion allowance for that property for the year.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159046

Taxable income limit.(p35)


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If you are an independent producer or royalty owner of oil and gas, your deduction for percentage depletion is limited to the smaller of the following. You can carry over to the following year any amount you cannot deduct because of the 65%-of-taxable-income limit. Add it to your depletion allowance (before applying any limits) for the following year.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159047

Partnerships and S Corporations(p35)


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previous topic occurrence Partnerships and S Corporations next topic occurrence

Generally, each partner or shareholder, and not the partnership or S corporation, figures the depletion allowance separately. (However, see Electing large partnerships must figure depletion allowance, later.) Each partner or shareholder must decide whether to use cost or percentage depletion. If a partner or shareholder uses percentage depletion, he or she must apply the 65%-of-taxable-income limit using his or her taxable income from all sources.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159048

Partner's or shareholder's adjusted basis.(p35)


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The partnership or S corporation must allocate to each partner or shareholder his or her share of the adjusted basis of each oil or gas property held by the partnership or S corporation. The partnership or S corporation makes the allocation as of the date it acquires the oil or gas property.
Each partner's share of the adjusted basis of the oil or gas property generally is figured according to that partner's interest in partnership capital. However, in some cases, it is figured according to the partner's interest in partnership income.
The partnership or S corporation adjusts the partner's or shareholder's share of the adjusted basis of the oil and gas property for any capital expenditures made for the property and for any change in partnership or S corporation interests.
Where Refund
Each partner or shareholder must separately keep records of his or her share of the adjusted basis in each oil and gas property of the partnership or S corporation. The partner or shareholder must reduce his or her adjusted basis by the depletion allowed or allowable on the property each year. The partner or shareholder must use that reduced adjusted basis to figure cost depletion or his or her gain or loss if the partnership or S corporation disposes of the property.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159050

Reporting the deduction.(p35)


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Information that you, as a partner or shareholder, use to figure your depletion deduction on oil and gas properties is reported by the partnership or S corporation on Schedule K-1 (Form 1065) or on Schedule K-1 (Form 1120S). Deduct oil and gas depletion for your partnership or S corporation interest on Schedule E (Form 1040). The depletion deducted on Schedule E is included in figuring income or loss from rental real estate or royalty properties. The instructions for Schedule E explain where to report this income or loss and whether you need to file either of the following forms.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159051

Electing large partnerships must figure depletion allowance.(p36)


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An electing large partnership, rather than each partner, generally must figure the depletion allowance. The partnership figures the depletion allowance without taking into account the 65-percent-of-taxable-income limit and the depletable oil or natural gas quantity. Also, the adjusted basis of a partner's interest in the partnership is not affected by the depletion allowance.
An electing large partnership is one that meets both the following requirements.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159052

Disqualified persons.(p36)
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An electing large partnership does not figure the depletion allowance of its partners that are disqualified persons. Disqualified persons must figure it themselves, as explained earlier.
All the following are disqualified persons.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159053

Natural Gas Wells(p36)


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Natural Gas Wells

You can use percentage depletion for a well that produces natural gas either sold under a fixed contract or produced from geopressured brine.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159054

Natural gas sold under a fixed contract.(p36)


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Natural gas sold under a fixed contract qualifies for a percentage depletion rate of 22%. This is domestic natural gas sold by the producer under a contract that does not provide for a price increase to reflect any increase in the seller's tax liability because of the repeal of percentage depletion for gas. The contract must have been in effect from February 1, 1975, until the date of sale of the gas. Price increases after February 1, 1975, are presumed to take the increase in tax liability into account unless demonstrated otherwise by clear and convincing evidence.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159055

Natural gas from geopressured brine.(p36)


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Qualified natural gas from geopressured brine is eligible for a percentage depletion rate of 10%. This is natural gas that is both the following.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159056

Mines and 
Geothermal Deposits(p36)


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Mines and Geothermal Deposits

Certain mines, wells, and other natural deposits, including geothermal deposits, qualify for percentage depletion.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159057

Mines and other natural deposits.(p36)


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For a natural deposit, the percentage of your gross income from the property that you can deduct as depletion depends on the type of deposit.
The following is a list of the percentage depletion rates for the more common minerals.
DEPOSITSRATE
Sulphur, uranium, and, if from deposits in the United States, asbestos, lead ore, zinc ore, nickel ore, and mica22%
Gold, silver, copper, iron ore, and certain oil shale, if from deposits in the United States15%
Borax, granite, limestone, marble, mollusk shells, potash, slate, soapstone, and carbon dioxide produced from a well14%
Coal, lignite, and sodium chloride10%
Clay and shale used or sold for use in making sewer pipe or bricks or used or sold for use as sintered or burned lightweight aggregates 71/2%
Clay used or sold for use in making drainage and roofing tile, flower pots, and kindred products, and gravel, sand, and stone (other than stone used or sold for use by a mine owner or operator as dimension or ornamental stone) 5%
You can find a complete list of minerals and their percentage depletion rates in section 613(b) of the Internal Revenue Code.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159059

Corporate deduction for iron ore and coal.(p36)
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The percentage depletion deduction of a corporation for iron ore and coal (including lignite) is reduced by 20% of:
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159060

Gross income from the property.(p36)


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For property other than a geothermal deposit or an oil or gas well, gross income from the property means the gross income from mining. Mining includes all the following.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159061

Excise tax.(p36)
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Gross income from mining includes the separately stated excise tax received by a mine operator from the sale of coal to compensate the operator for the excise tax the mine operator must pay to finance black lung benefits.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159062

Extraction.(p36)
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Extracting ores or minerals from the ground includes extraction by mine owners or operators of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining. This does not apply to extraction from waste or residue of prior mining by the purchaser of the waste or residue or the purchaser of the rights to extract ores or minerals from the waste or residue.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159063

Treatment processes.(p36)
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The processes included as mining depend on the ore or mineral mined. To qualify as mining, the treatment processes must be applied by the mine owner or operator. For a listing of treatment processes considered as mining, see section 613(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159064

Transportation of more than 50 miles.(p36)
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If the IRS finds that the ore or mineral must be transported more than 50 miles to plants or mills to be treated because of physical and other requirements, the additional authorized transportation is considered mining and included in the computation of gross income from mining.
Due date
If you wish to include transportation of more than 50 miles in the computation of gross income from mining, file an application in duplicate with the IRS. Include on the application the facts concerning the physical and other requirements which prevented the construction and operation of the plant within 50 miles of the point of extraction. Send this application to:

Internal Revenue Service 
Associate Chief Counsel 
Passthroughs and Special Industries 
CC:PSI:FO 
1111 Constitution Ave., N.W., IR-5300 
Washington, DC 20224


taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159066

Disposal of coal or iron ore.(p36)


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You cannot take a depletion deduction for coal (including lignite) or iron ore mined in the United States if both the following apply. Treat any gain on the disposition as a capital gain.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159067

Disposal to related person.(p36)
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This rule does not apply if you dispose of the coal or iron ore to one of the following persons.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159068

Geothermal deposits.(p37)


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Geothermal deposits located in the United States or its possessions qualify for a percentage depletion rate of 15%. A geothermal deposit is a geothermal reservoir of natural heat stored in rocks or in a watery liquid or vapor. For percentage depletion purposes, a geothermal deposit is not considered a gas well.
Figure gross income from the property for a geothermal steam well in the same way as for oil and gas wells. See Gross income from the property, earlier, under Oil and Gas Wells. Percentage depletion on a geothermal deposit cannot be more than 50% of your taxable income from the property.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159069

Lessor's Gross Income(p37)


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Lessor's Gross Income

A lessor's gross income from the property that qualifies for percentage depletion usually is the total of the royalties received from the lease. However, for oil, gas, or geothermal property, gross income does not include lease bonuses, advanced royalties, or other amounts payable without regard to production from the property.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159070

Bonuses and advanced royalties.(p37)


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Bonuses and advanced royalties are payments a lessee makes before production to a lessor for the grant of rights in a lease or for minerals, gas, or oil to be extracted from leased property. If you are the lessor, your income from bonuses and advanced royalties received is subject to an allowance for depletion.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159071

Figuring cost depletion.(p37)
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To figure cost depletion on a bonus, multiply your adjusted basis in the property by a fraction, the numerator of which is the bonus and the denominator of which is the total bonus and royalties expected to be received. To figure cost depletion on advanced royalties, use the computation explained earlier under Cost Depletion, treating the number of units for which the advanced royalty is received as the number of units sold.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159072

Figuring percentage depletion.(p37)
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In the case of mines, wells, and other natural deposits other than gas, oil, or geothermal property, you may use the percentage rates discussed earlier under Mines and Geothermal Deposits. Any bonus or advanced royalty payments are generally part of the gross income from the property to which the rates are applied in making the calculation. However, in the case of independent producers and royalty owners of oil and gas property, bonuses and advance royalty payments are not a part of gross income.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159073

Terminating the lease.(p37)
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If you receive a bonus on a lease that expires, terminates, or is abandoned before you derive any income from the extraction of mineral, include in income for the year of expiration, termination, or abandonment, the depletion deduction you took. Also increase your adjusted basis in the property to restore the depletion deduction you previously subtracted.
For advanced royalties, include in income for the year of lease termination, the depletion claimed on minerals for which the advanced royalties were paid if the minerals were not produced before termination. Increase your adjusted basis in the property by the amount you include in income.
taxmap/pubs/p535-050.htm#en_us_publink1000159074

Delay rentals.(p37)


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These are payments for deferring development of the property. Since delay rentals are ordinary rent, they are ordinary income that is not subject to depletion. These rentals can be avoided by either abandoning the lease, beginning development operations, or obtaining production.
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