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previous page Previous Page: Publication 544 - Sales and other Dispositions of Assets - Noncapital Assets
next page Next Page: Publication 544 - Sales and other Dispositions of Assets - Other Dispositions
 Use previous pagenext page to find additional occurrences of topic items.Index for this Publication
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072491

Sales and Exchanges  
Between Related Persons(p22)


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Sales and Exchanges Between Related Persons

This section discusses the rules that may apply to the sale or exchange of property between related persons. If these rules apply, gains may be treated as ordinary income and losses may not be deductible. See Transfers to Spouse in chapter 1 for rules that apply to spouses.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072492

Gain Is Ordinary Income(p22)


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If a gain is recognized on the sale or exchange of property to a related person, the gain may be ordinary income even if the property is a capital asset. It is ordinary income if the sale or exchange is a depreciable property transaction or a controlled partnership transaction.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072493

Depreciable property transaction.(p22)


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Gain on the sale or exchange of property, including a leasehold or a patent application, that is depreciable property in the hands of the person who receives it is ordinary income if the transaction is either directly or indirectly between any of the following pairs of entities.
  1. A person and the person's controlled entity or entities.
  2. A taxpayer and any trust in which the taxpayer (or his or her spouse) is a beneficiary unless the beneficiary's interest in the trust is a remote contingent interest; that is, the value of the interest computed actuarially is 5% or less of the value of the trust property.
  3. An executor and a beneficiary of an estate unless the sale or exchange is in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest.
  4. An employer (or any person related to the employer under rules (1), (2), or (3)) and a welfare benefit fund (within the meaning of section 419(e) of the Internal Revenue Code) that is controlled directly or indirectly by the employer (or any person related to the employer).
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072494

Controlled entity.(p22)
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A person's controlled entity is either of the following.
  1. A corporation in which more than 50% of the value of all outstanding stock, or a partnership in which more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest, is directly or indirectly owned by or for that person.
  2. An entity whose relationship with that person is one of the following.
    1. A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership.
    2. Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in section 1563(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, except that "more than 50%" is substituted for "at least 80%" in that definition.
    3. Two S corporations, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
    4. Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072495

Controlled partnership transaction.(p23)


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A gain recognized in a controlled partnership transaction may be ordinary income. The gain is ordinary income if it results from the sale or exchange of property that, in the hands of the party who receives it, is a noncapital asset such as trade accounts receivable, inventory, stock in trade, or depreciable or real property used in a trade or business.
A controlled partnership transaction is a transaction directly or indirectly between either of the following pairs of entities.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072496

Determining ownership.(p23)


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In the transactions under Depreciable property transaction and Controlled partnership transaction, earlier, use the following rules to determine the ownership of stock or a partnership interest.
  1. Stock or a partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust is considered owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. (However, for a partnership interest owned by or for a C corporation, this applies only to shareholders who directly or indirectly own 5% or more in value of the stock of the corporation.)
  2. An individual is considered as owning the stock or partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her family. Family includes only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants.
  3. For purposes of applying (1) or (2), stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by a person under (1) is treated as actually owned by that person. But stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by an individual under (2) is not treated as owned by the individual for reapplying (2) to make another person the constructive owner of that stock or partnership interest.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072497

Nondeductible Loss(p23)


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previous topic occurrence Nondeductible Loss next topic occurrence

A loss on the sale or exchange of property between related persons is not deductible. This applies to both direct and indirect transactions, but not to distributions of property from a corporation in a complete liquidation. For the list of related persons, see Related persons next.
If a sale or exchange is between any of these related persons and involves the lump-sum sale of a number of blocks of stock or pieces of property, the gain or loss must be figured separately for each block of stock or piece of property. The gain on each item is taxable. The loss on any item is nondeductible. Gains from the sales of any of these items may not be offset by losses on the sales of any of the other items.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072498

Related persons.(p23)


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The following is a list of related persons.
  1. Members of a family, including only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc.), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc.).
  2. An individual and a corporation if the individual directly or indirectly owns more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation.
  3. Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group as defined in section 267(f) of the Internal Revenue Code.
  4. A trust fiduciary and a corporation if the trust or the grantor of the trust directly or indirectly owns more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation.
  5. A grantor and fiduciary, and the fiduciary and beneficiary, of any trust.
  6. Fiduciaries of two different trusts, and the fiduciary and beneficiary of two different trusts, if the same person is the grantor of both trusts.
  7. A tax-exempt educational or charitable organization and a person who directly or indirectly controls the organization, or a member of that person's family.
  8. A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership.
  9. Two S corporations if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
  10. Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
  11. An executor and a beneficiary of an estate unless the sale or exchange is in satisfaction of a pecuniary bequest.
  12. Two partnerships if the same persons directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interests or profits interests in both partnerships.
  13. A person and a partnership if the person directly or indirectly owns more than 50% of the capital interest or profits interest in the partnership.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072499

Partnership interests.(p23)


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The nondeductible loss rule does not apply to a sale or exchange of an interest in the partnership between the related persons described in (12) or (13) above.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072500

Controlled groups.(p23)


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Losses on transactions between members of the same controlled group described in (3) earlier are deferred rather than denied.
For more information, see section 267(f) of the Internal Revenue Code.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072501

Ownership of stock or partnership interests.(p23)


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In determining whether an individual directly or indirectly owns any of the outstanding stock of a corporation or an interest in a partnership for a loss on a sale or exchange, the following rules apply.
  1. Stock or a partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust is considered owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. (However, for a partnership interest owned by or for a C corporation, this applies only to shareholders who directly or indirectly own 5% or more in value of the stock of the corporation.)
  2. An individual is considered as owning the stock or partnership interest directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her family. Family includes only brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants.
  3. An individual owning (other than by applying (2)) any stock in a corporation is considered to own the stock directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her partner.
  4. For purposes of applying (1), (2), or (3), stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by a person under (1) is treated as actually owned by that person. But stock or a partnership interest constructively owned by an individual under (2) or (3) is not treated as owned by the individual for reapplying either (2) or (3) to make another person the constructive owner of that stock or partnership interest.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072502

Indirect transactions.(p23)


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You cannot deduct your loss on the sale of stock through your broker if under a prearranged plan a related person or entity buys the same stock you had owned. This does not apply to a cross-trade between related parties through an exchange that is purely coincidental and is not prearranged.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072503

Property received from a related person.(p23)


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If, in a purchase or exchange, you received property from a related person who had a loss that was not allowable and you later sell or exchange the property at a gain, you recognize the gain only to the extent it is more than the loss previously disallowed to the related person. This rule applies only to the original transferee.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072504

Example 1.(p23)

Your brother sold stock to you for $7,600. His cost basis was $10,000. His loss of $2,400 was not deductible. You later sell the same stock to an unrelated party for $10,500, realizing a gain of $2,900 ($10,500 − $7,600). Your recognized gain is only $500, the gain that is more than the $2,400 loss not allowed to your brother.
taxmap/pubs/p544-013.htm#en_us_publink100072505

Example 2.(p23)

Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that you sell the stock for $6,900 instead of $10,500. Your recognized loss is only $700 ($7,600 − $6,900). You cannot deduct the loss not allowed to your brother.
previous pagePrevious Page: Publication 544 - Sales and other Dispositions of Assets - Noncapital Assets
next pageNext Page: Publication 544 - Sales and other Dispositions of Assets - Other Dispositions
 Use previous pagenext page to find additional occurrences of topic items.Index for this Publication