Special rules apply to the sale or trade of property between related parties.taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010463
Your gain from the sale or trade of property to a related party may be ordinary income, rather than capital gain, if the property can be depreciated by the party receiving it. See chapter 3 in Publication 544 for more information. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010464
Generally, if you trade business or investment property for other business or investment property of a like kind, no gain or loss is recognized. See Like-Kind Exchanges
, earlier, under Nontaxable Trades
This rule also applies to trades of property between related parties, defined next under Losses on Sales or Trades of Property. However, if either you or the related party disposes of the like property within 2 years after the trade, you both must report any gain or loss not recognized on the original trade on your return for the year in which the later disposition occurs.
This rule generally does not apply to:
- Dispositions due to the death of either related party,
- Involuntary conversions (see chapter 1 of Publication 544), or
- Trades and later dispositions whose main purpose is not the avoidance of federal income tax.
If a property holder's risk of loss on the property is substantially diminished during any period, that period is not counted in determining whether the property was disposed of within 2 years. The property holder's risk of loss is substantially diminished by:
- The holding of a put on the property,
- The holding by another person of a right to acquire the property, or
- A short sale or any other transaction.
You cannot deduct a loss on the sale or trade of property, other than a distribution in complete liquidation of a corporation, if the transaction is directly or indirectly between you and the following related parties.
- Members of your family. This includes only your brothers and sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc.), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc.).
- A partnership in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interest or the profits interest.
- A corporation in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock (see Constructive ownership of stock, later).
- A tax-exempt charitable or educational organization that is directly or indirectly controlled, in any manner or by any method, by you or by a member of your family, whether or not this control is legally enforceable.
In addition, a loss on the sale or trade of property is not deductible if the transaction is directly or indirectly between the following related parties.
- A grantor and fiduciary, or the fiduciary and beneficiary, of any trust.
- Fiduciaries of two different trusts, or the fiduciary and beneficiary of two different trusts, if the same person is the grantor of both trusts.
- A trust fiduciary and a corporation of which more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock is directly or indirectly owned by or for the trust, or by or for the grantor of the trust.
- A corporation and a partnership if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation and more than 50% of the capital interest, or the profits interest, in the partnership.
- Two S corporations if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
- Two corporations, one of which is an S corporation, if the same persons own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock of each corporation.
- An executor and a beneficiary of an estate (except in the case of a sale or trade to satisfy a pecuniary bequest).
- Two corporations that are members of the same controlled group (under certain conditions, however, these losses are not disallowed but must be deferred).
- Two partnerships if the same persons own, directly or indirectly, more than 50% of the capital interests or the profit interests in both partnerships.
If you sell or trade to a related party a number of blocks of stock or pieces of property in a lump sum, you must figure the gain or loss separately for each block of stock or piece of property. The gain on each item may be taxable. However, you cannot deduct the loss on any item. Also, you cannot reduce gains from the sales of any of these items by losses on the sales of any of the other items. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010467
You cannot deduct your loss on the sale of stock through your broker if, under a prearranged plan, a related party buys the same stock you had owned. This does not apply to a trade between related parties through an exchange that is purely coincidental and is not prearranged. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010468
In determining whether a person directly or indirectly owns any of the outstanding stock of a corporation, the following rules apply. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010469
Stock directly or indirectly owned by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust is considered owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010470
An individual is considered to own the stock that is directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her family. Family includes only brothers and sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters, spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010471
An individual owning, other than by applying rule 2, any stock in a corporation is considered to own the stock that is directly or indirectly owned by or for his or her partner. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010472
When applying rule 1, 2, or 3, stock constructively owned by a person under rule 1 is treated as actually owned by that person. But stock constructively owned by an individual under rule 2 or rule 3 is not treated as owned by that individual for again applying either rule 2 or rule 3 to make another person the constructive owner of the stock. taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010473
If you sell or trade at a gain property that you acquired from a related party, you recognize the gain only to the extent that it is more than the loss previously disallowed to the related party. This rule applies only if you are the original transferee and you acquired the property by purchase or exchange. This rule does not apply if the related party's loss was disallowed because of the wash sale rules, described later under Wash Sales
If you sell or trade at a loss property that you acquired from a related party, you cannot recognize the loss that was not allowed to the related party.taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010474
Your brother sells you stock for $7,600. His cost basis is $10,000. Your brother cannot deduct the loss of $2,400. Later, you sell the same stock to an unrelated party for $10,500, realizing a gain of $2,900. Your reportable gain is $500 (the $2,900 gain minus the $2,400 loss not allowed to your brother).taxmap/pubs/p550-025.htm#en_us_publink100010475
If, in Example 1, you sold the stock for $6,900 instead of $10,500, your recognized loss is only $700 (your $7,600 basis minus $6,900). You cannot deduct the loss that was not allowed to your brother.