Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP).
Low Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs).(p63)
Free tax services.(p63)
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Phone. Many services are available by phone.
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CD for small businesses. Publication 3207, The Small Business Resource Guide CD for 2007, is a must for every small business owner or any taxpayer about to start a business. This year's CD includes:
An updated version of this CD is available each year in early April. You can get a free copy by calling 1-800-829-3676 or by visiting www.irs.gov/smallbiz.
|Section of 1986 Code||Description of organization||General nature of activities||Application|
required to be
|501(c)(1)||Corporations Organized under Act|
of Congress (including Federal Credit Unions)
|Instrumentalities of the|
|No Form||None||Yes, if made for exclusively public purposes|
|501(c)(2)||Title Holding Corporation For|
|Holding title to property of an|
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(3)||Religious, Educational, Charitable, Scientific, Literary, Testing for Public Safety, to Foster National or International Amateur Sports Competition, or Prevention of Cruelty to Children or Animals Organizations||Activities of nature implied by description of class of organization||1023||9901 or 990-EZ8, or 990-PF||Yes, generally|
|501(c)(4)||Civic Leagues, Social Welfare Organizations, and Local|
Associations of Employees
|Promotion of community welfare; charitable, educational or recreational||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No, generally 2, 3|
|501(c)(5)||Labor, Agricultural, and Horticultural Organizations||Educational or instructive, the|
purpose being to improve conditions of work, and to improve products of efficiency
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(6)||Business Leagues, Chambers of Commerce, Real Estate Boards,|
|Improvement of business|
conditions of one or more lines of business
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(7)||Social and Recreational Clubs||Pleasure, recreation, social activities||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(8)||Fraternal Beneficiary Societies|
|Lodge providing for payment of life, sickness, accident or other benefits|
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes, if for certain Sec. 501(c)(3) purposes|
|501(c)(9)||Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Associations||Providing for payment of life, sickness, accident, or other benefits to members||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(10)||Domestic Fraternal Societies|
|Lodge devoting its net earnings to charitable, fraternal, and other|
specified purposes. No life, sickness, or accident benefits to members
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes, if for certain Sec. 501(c)(3) purposes|
|501(c)(11)||Teachers' Retirement Fund Associations||Teachers' association for payment of retirement benefits||No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(12)||Benevolent Life Insurance Associations, Mutual Ditch or|
Irrigation Companies, Mutual or Cooperative Telephone Companies, etc.
|Activities of a mutually beneficial|
nature similar to those implied by the description of class of organization
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(13)||Cemetery Companies||Burials and incidental activities||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes, generally|
|501(c)(14)||State-Chartered Credit Unions,|
Mutual Reserve Funds
|Loans to members||No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(15)||Mutual Insurance Companies or Associations||Providing insurance to members substantially at cost||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(16)||Cooperative Organizations to|
Finance Crop Operations
|Financing crop operations in conjunction with activities of a|
marketing or purchasing association
|No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|Provides for payment of|
supplemental unemployment compensation benefits
|1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(18)||Employee Funded Pension Trust (created before June 25, 1959)||Payment of benefits under a|
pension plan funded by employees
|No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No2|
|501(c)(19)||Post or Organization of Past or|
Present Members of the Armed Forces
|Activities implied by nature of organization||1024||9901 or 990-EZ8||No, generally7|
|501(c)(21)||Black Lung Benefit Trusts||Funded by coal mine operators to satisfy their liability for disability or|
death due to black lung diseases
|501(c)(22)||Withdrawal Liability Payment Fund||To provide funds to meet the|
liability of employers withdrawing from
a multi-employer pension fund
|No Form6||990 or 990-EZ8||No5|
|501(c)(23)||Veterans Organization (created|
|To provide insurance and other|
benefits to veterans
|No Form6||990 or 990-EZ8||No, generally7|
|501(c)(25)||Title Holding Corporations or Trusts with Multiple Parents||Holding title and paying over|
income from property to 35 or fewer parents or beneficiaries
|1024||990 or 990-EZ||No|
|501(c)(26)||State-Sponsored Organization Providing Health Coverage for High-Risk Individuals||Provides health care coverage to high-risk individuals||No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No|
|501(c)(27)||State-Sponsored Workers' Compensation Reinsurance Organization||Reimburses members for losses|
under workers' compensation acts
|No Form6||9901 or 990-EZ8||No|
|501(c)(28)||National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust||Manages and invests the assets of the Railroad Retirement Account||No Form11||Not yet determined||No|
|501(d)||Religious and Apostolic Associations||Regular business activities.|
Communal religious community
|501(e)||Cooperative Hospital Service Organizations||Performs cooperative services for hospitals||1023||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes|
|501(f)||Cooperative Service Organizations|
of Operating Educational Organizations
|Performs collective investment|
services for educational organizations
|1023||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes|
|501(k)||Child Care Organizations||Provides cares for children||1023||990 or 990-EZ8||Yes|
|501(n)||Charitable Risk Pools||Pools certain insurance risks of 501(c)(3)||1023||9901 or 990-EZ8||Yes|
|501(q)||Credit Counseling Organization||Credit counseling services||1023||102312||No|
|521(a)||Farmers' Cooperative Associations||Cooperative marketing and|
purchasing for agricultural procedures
|527||Political organizations||A party, committee, fund,|
association, etc., that directly or indirectly accepts contributions or makes expenditures for political campaigns
990 or 990-EZ8
|1For exceptions to the filing requirement, see chapter 2 and the form instructions.|
2An organization exempt under a subsection of Code sec. 501 other than 501(c)(3) may establish a charitable fund, contributions to which are deductible. Such a fund must itself meet the requirements of section 501(c)(3) and the related notice requirements of section 508(a).
3Contributions to volunteer fire companies and similar organizations are deductible, but only if made for exclusively public purposes.
4Deductible as a business expense to the extent allowed by Code section 192.
5Deductible as a business expense to the extent allowed by Code section 194A.
|6Application is by letter to the address shown on Form 8718. A copy of the organizing document should be attached and the letter should be signed by an officer.|
7Contributions to these organizations are deductible only if 90% or more of the organization's members are war veterans.
8For limits on the use of Form 990-EZ, see chapter 2 and the general instructions for Form 990-EZ (or Form 990).
9Although the organization files a partnership return, all distributions are deemed dividends. The members are not entitled to pass through treatment of the organization's income or expenses.
10Form 1120–POL is required only if the organization has taxable income as defined in IRC 527(c).
11Application procedures not yet determined.
12See Code section 501(q) if the organization provides credit counseling services and seeks recognition of exemption under section 501(c)(4). Use Form 1024 if applying for recognition under Code section 501(c)(4).
|The following are examples of a charter (Draft A) and a declaration of trust (Draft B) that contain the required information as to purposes and powers of an organization and disposition of its assets upon dissolution. You should bear in mind that requirements for these instruments may vary under applicable state law.|
|See Private Foundations and Public Charities, for the special provisions required in a private foundation's governing instrument in order for it to qualify for exemption.|
|Articles of Incorporation of the undersigned, a majority of whom are citizens of the United States, desiring to form a Non-Profit Corporation under the Non-Profit Corporation Law of , do hereby certify:|
|First: The name of the Corporation shall be .|
|Second: The place in this state where the principal office of the Corporation is to be located is the City of , County.|
|Third: Said corporation is organized exclusively for charitable, religious, educational, and scientific purposes, including, for such purposes, the making of distributions to organizations that qualify as exempt organizations under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code.|
|Fourth: The names and addresses of the persons who are the initial trustees of the corporation are as follows:|
Name , Address
|Fifth: No part of the net earnings of the corporation shall inure to the benefit of, or be distributable to its members, trustees, officers, or other private persons, except that the corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in Article Third hereof. No substantial part of the activities of the corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and the corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office. Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, the corporation shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on (a) by a corporation exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code, or (b) by a corporation, contributions to which are deductible under section 170(c)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code.|
If reference to federal law in articles of incorporation imposes a limitation that is invalid in your state, you may wish to substitute the following for the last sentence of the preceding paragraph: "Notwithstanding any other provision of these articles, this corporation shall not, except to an insubstantial degree, engage in any activities or exercise any powers that are not in furtherance of the purposes of this corporation."
|Sixth: Upon the dissolution of the corporation, assets shall be distributed for one or more exempt purposes within the meaning of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code, or shall be distributed to the federal government, or to a state or local government, for a public purpose. Any such assets not so disposed of shall be disposed of by a Court of Competent Jurisdiction of the county in which the principal office of the corporation is then located, exclusively for such purposes or to such organization or organizations, as said Court shall determine, which are organized and operated exclusively for such purposes.|
In witness whereof, we have hereunto subscribed our names this day of , 20 .
Appendix. Sample Articles of Organization, continued(p70)
|The Charitable Trust. Declaration of Trust made as of the day of , 20 , by , of , and , of , who hereby declare and agree that they have received this day from , as Donor, the sum of Ten Dollars ($10) and that they will hold and manage the same, and any additions to it, in trust, as follows:|
|First: This trust shall be called "The Charitable Trust."|
|Second: The trustees may receive and accept property, whether real, personal, or mixed, by way of gift, bequest, or devise, from any person, firm, trust, or corporation, to be held, administered, and disposed of in accordance with and pursuant to the provisions of this Declaration of Trust; but no gift, bequest or devise of any such property shall be received and accepted if it is conditioned or limited in such manner as to require the disposition of the income or its principal to any person or organization other than a "charitable organization" or for other than "charitable purposes" within the meaning of such terms as defined in Article Third of this Declaration of Trust, or as shall in the opinion of the trustees, jeopardize the federal income tax exemption of this trust pursuant to section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code.|
A. The principal and income of all property received and accepted by the trustees to be administered under this Declaration of Trust shall be held in trust by them, and the trustees may make payments or distributions from income or principal, or both, to or for the use of such charitable organizations, within the meaning of that term as defined in paragraph C, in such amounts and for such charitable purposes of the trust as the trustees shall from time to time select and determine; and the trustees may make payments or distributions from income or principal, or both, directly for such charitable purposes, within the meaning of that term as defined in paragraph D, in such amounts as the trustees shall from time to time select and determine without making use of any other charitable organization. The trustees may also make payments or distributions of all or any part of the income or principal to states, territories, or possessions of the United States, any political subdivision of any of the foregoing, or to the United States or the District of Columbia but only for charitable purposes within the meaning of that term as defined in paragraph D. Income or principal derived from contributions by corporations shall be distributed by the trustees for use solely within the United States or its possessions. No part of the net earnings of this trust shall inure or be payable to or for the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and no substantial part of the activities of this trust shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislation. No part of the activities of this trust shall be the participation in, or intervention in (including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office.
B. The trust shall continue forever unless the trustees terminate it and distribute all of the principal and income, which action may be taken by the trustees in their discretion at any time. On such termination, assets shall be distributed for one or more exempt purposes within the meaning of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code, or shall be distributed to the federal government, or to a state or local government, for a public purpose. The donor authorizes and empowers the trustees to form and organize a nonprofit corporation limited to the uses and purposes provided for in this Declaration of Trust, such corporation to be organized under the laws of any state or under the laws of the United States as may be determined by the trustees; such corporation when organized to have power to administer and control the affairs and property and to carry out the uses, objects, and purposes of this trust. Upon the creation and organization of such corporation, the trustees are authorized and empowered to convey, transfer, and deliver to such corporation all the property and assets to which this trust may be or become entitled. The charter, bylaws, and other provisions for the organization and management of such corporation and its affairs and property shall be such as the trustees shall determine, consistent with the provisions of this paragraph.
C. In this Declaration of Trust and in any amendments to it, references to "charitable organizations" or "charitable organization" mean corporations, trusts, funds, foundations, or community chests created or organized in the United States or in any of its possessions, whether under the laws of the United States, any state or territory, the District of Columbia, or any possession of the United States, organized and operated exclusively for charitable purposes, no part of the net earnings of which inures or is payable to or for the benefit of any private shareholder or individual, and no substantial part of the activities of which is carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation, and which do not participate in or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of statements) any political campaign on behalf of or in opposition to any candidate for public office. It is intended that the organization described in this paragraph C shall be entitled to exemption from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code.
D. In this Declaration of Trust and in any amendments to it, the term "charitable purposes" shall be limited to and shall include only religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational purposes within the meaning of those terms as used in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code, but only such purposes as also constitute public charitable purposes under the law of trusts of the State of .
|Fourth: This Declaration of Trust may be amended at any time or times by written instrument or instruments signed and sealed by the trustees, and acknowledged by any of the trustees, provided that no amendment shall authorize the trustees to conduct the affairs of this trust in any manner or for any purpose contrary to the provisions of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, or the corresponding section of any future federal tax code. An amendment of the provisions of this Article Fourth (or any amendment to it) shall be valid only if and to the extent that such amendment further restricts the trustees' amending power. All instruments amending this Declaration of Trust shall be noted upon or kept attached to the executed original of this Declaration of Trust held by the trustees.|
|Fifth: Any trustee under this Declaration of Trust may, by written instrument, signed and acknowledged, resign his office. The number of trustees shall be at all times not less than two, and whenever for any reason the number is reduced to one, there shall be, and at any other time there may be, appointed one or more additional trustees. Appointments shall be made by the trustee or trustees for the time in office by written instruments signed and acknowledged. Any succeeding or additional trustee shall, upon his or her acceptance of the office by written instrument signed and acknowledged, have the same powers, rights and duties, and the same title to the trust estate jointly with the surviving or remaining trustee or trustees as if originally appointed.|
None of the trustees shall be required to furnish any bond or surety. None of them shall be responsible or liable for the acts or omissions of any other of the trustees or of any predecessor or of a custodian, agent, depositary or counsel selected with reasonable care.
The one or more trustees, whether original or successor, for the time being in office, shall have full authority to act even though one or more vacancies may exist. A trustee may, by appropriate written instrument, delegate all or any part of his or her powers to another or others of the trustees for such periods and subject to such conditions as such delegating trustee may determine.
The trustees serving under this Declaration of Trust are authorized to pay to themselves amounts for reasonable expenses incurred and reasonable compensation for services rendered in the administration of this trust, but in no event shall any trustee who has made a contribution to this trust ever receive any compensation thereafter.
|Sixth: In extension and not in limitation of the common law and statutory powers of trustees and other powers granted in this Declaration of Trust, the trustees shall have the following discretionary powers.|
a) To invest and reinvest the principal and income of the trust in such property, real, personal, or mixed, and in such manner as they shall deem proper, and from time to time to change investments as they shall deem advisable; to invest in or retain any stocks, shares, bonds, notes, obligations, or personal or real property (including without limitation any interests in or obligations of any corporation, association, business trust, investment trust, common trust fund, or investment company) although some or all of the property so acquired or retained is of a kind or size which but for this express authority would not be considered proper and although all of the trust funds are invested in the securities of one company. No principal or income, however, shall be loaned, directly or indirectly, to any trustee or to anyone else, corporate or otherwise, who has at any time made a contribution to this trust, nor to anyone except on the basis of an adequate interest charge and with adequate security.
b) To sell, lease, or exchange any personal, mixed, or real property, at public auction or by private contract, for such consideration and on such terms as to credit or otherwise, and to make such contracts and enter into such undertakings relating to the trust property, as they consider advisable, whether or not such leases or contracts may extend beyond the duration of the trust.
c) To borrow money for such periods, at such rates of interest, and upon such terms as the trustees consider advisable, and as security for such loans to mortgage or pledge any real or personal property with or without power of sale; to acquire or hold any real or personal property, subject to any mortgage or pledge on or of property acquired or held by this trust.
d) To execute and deliver deeds, assignments, transfers, mortgages, pledges, leases, covenants, contracts, promissory notes, releases, and other instruments, sealed or unsealed, incident to any transaction in which they engage.
e) To vote, to give proxies, to participate in the reorganization, merger or consolidation of any concern, or in the sale, lease, disposition, or distribution of its assets; to join with other security holders in acting through a committee, depositary, voting trustees, or otherwise, and in this connection to delegate authority to such committee, depositary, or trustees and to deposit securities with them or transfer securities to them; to pay assessments levied on securities or to exercise subscription rights in respect of securities.
f) To employ a bank or trust company as custodian of any funds or securities and to delegate to it such powers as they deem appropriate; to hold trust property without indication of fiduciary capacity but only in the name of a registered nominee, provided the trust property is at all times identified as such on the books of the trust; to keep any or all of the trust property or funds in any place or places in the United States of America; to employ clerks, accountants, investment counsel, investment agents, and any special services, and to pay the reasonable compensation and expenses of all such services in addition to the compensation of the trustees.
|Seventh: The trustees' powers are exercisable solely in the fiduciary capacity consistent with and in furtherance of the charitable purposes of this trust as specified in Article Third and not otherwise.|
|Eighth: In this Declaration of Trust and in any amendment to it, references to "trustees" mean the one or more trustees, whether original or successor, for the time being in office.|
|Ninth: Any person may rely on a copy, certified by a notary public, of the executed original of this Declaration of Trust held by the trustees, and of any of the notations on it and writings attached to it, as fully as he might rely on the original documents themselves. Any such person may rely fully on any statements of fact certified by anyone who appears from such original documents or from such certified copy to be a trustee under this Declaration of Trust. No one dealing with the trustees need inquire concerning the validity of anything the trustees purport to do. No one dealing with the trustees need see to the application of anything paid or transferred to or upon the order of the trustees of the trust.|
|Tenth: This Declaration of Trust is to be governed in all respects by the laws of the State of . |