The following discussion applies to:
- Social clubs described in section 501(c)(7),
- Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations (VEBAs) described in section 501(c)(9),
- Supplemental unemployment compensation benefit trusts (SUBs) described in section 501(c)(17), and
- Group legal services organizations (GLSOs) described in section 501(c)(20).
These organizations must figure unrelated business taxable income under special rules. Unlike other exempt organizations, they cannot exclude their investment income (dividends, interest, rents, etc.). (See Exclusions
earlier.) Therefore, they are generally subject to unrelated business income tax on this income.
The unrelated business taxable income of these organizations includes all gross income, less deductions directly connected with the production of that income, except that gross income for this purpose does not include exempt function income. The dividends received by a corporation are not allowed in computing unrelated business taxable income because it is not an expense incurred in the production of income. taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067583
Losses from nonexempt activities of these organizations cannot be used to offset investment income unless the activities were undertaken with the intent to make a profit.taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067584
A private golf and country club that is a qualified tax-exempt social club has nonexempt function income from interest and from the sale of food and beverages to nonmembers. The club sells food and beverages as a service to members and their guests rather than for the purpose of making a profit. Therefore, any loss resulting from sales to nonmembers cannot be used to offset the club's interest income.taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067585
The unrelated business taxable income is modified by any NOL or charitable contributions deduction and by the specific deduction (described earlier under Deductions).taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067586
This is gross income from dues, fees, charges or similar items paid by members for goods, facilities, or services to the members or their dependents or guests, to further the organization's exempt purposes. Exempt function income also includes income that is set aside for qualified purposes. taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067587
This is income set aside to be used for religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational purposes or for the prevention of cruelty to children or animals. In addition, for a VEBA, SUB, or GLSO, it is income set aside to provide for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits.
However, any amounts set aside by a VEBA or SUB that exceed the organization's qualified asset account limit (determined under section 419A) are unrelated business income. Special rules apply to the treatment of existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits. These rules are explained in section 512(a)(3)(E)(ii).
Income derived from an unrelated trade or business may not be set aside and therefore cannot be exempt function income. In addition, any income set aside and later spent for other purposes must be included in unrelated business taxable income.
Set-aside income is generally excluded from gross income only if it is set aside in the tax year in which it is otherwise includible in gross income. However, income set aside on or before the date for filing Form 990-T, including extensions of time, may, at the election of the organization, be treated as having been set aside in the tax year for which the return was filed. The income set aside must have been includible in gross income for that earlier year. taxmap/pubs/p598-011.htm#en_us_publink100067588
If the organization sells property used directly in performing an exempt function and purchases other property used directly in performing an exempt function, any gain on the sale is recognized only to the extent that the sales price of the old property exceeds the cost of the new property. The purchase of the new property must be made within 1 year before the date of sale of the old property or within 3 years after the date of sale.
This rule also applies to gain from an involuntary conversion of the property resulting from its destruction in whole or in part, theft, seizure, requisition, or condemnation.