Generally, you must deposit both the employer and employee shares of social security and Medicare taxes and federal income tax withheld (minus any advance earned income credit payments). You must deposit by using the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) or by mailing or delivering a check, money order, or cash with Form 8109, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, to an authorized financial institution that is an authorized depositary for federal taxes. However, some employers must only deposit using EFTPS. See How To Deposit
on page 16.
The credit against employment taxes for COBRA premium assistance payments you take on the 2009 Form 943 is treated as a deposit of taxes on the first day of your return period. See COBRA premium assistance credit
on page 5 for more information.
You may make payments with Forms 943 or 945 instead of depositing if one of the following applies.
- You report less than a $2,500 tax liability for the year (line 11 of Form 943 or line 3 of Form 945) and you pay in full with a return that is filed on time. However, if you are unsure that you will report less than $2,500, deposit under the rules explained in this section so that you will not be subject to failure-to-deposit penalties.
- You are a monthly schedule depositor and make a payment in accordance with the Accuracy of Deposits Rule discussed later. This payment may be $2,500 or more.
Only monthly schedule depositors, defined later, are allowed to make an Accuracy of Deposits Rule payment with the return. Semiweekly schedule depositors must timely deposit the amount. See Accuracy of Deposits Rule
and How To Deposit
, later in this section.
If you employ both farm and nonfarm workers, do not combine the taxes reportable on Forms 941 or 944 with Form 943 to decide whether to make a deposit. See Employers of Both Farm and Nonfarm Workers
on page 19.
The rules for determining when to deposit Form 943 taxes are discussed below. See section 10
for the separate rules that apply to FUTA tax. Under these rules, you are classified as either a monthly schedule depositor or a semiweekly schedule depositor.
The terms "monthly schedule depositor" and "semiweekly schedule depositor" do not refer to how often your business pays its employees or how often you are required to make deposits. The terms identify which set of rules you must follow when you incur a tax liability.
The deposit schedule that you must use for a calendar year is determined from the total taxes (not reduced by any advance EIC payments) reported on your Form 943 (line 9) for the lookback period, discussed next.
- If you reported $50,000 or less of Form 943 taxes for the lookback period, you are a monthly schedule depositor.
- If you reported more than $50,000 of Form 943 taxes for the lookback period, you are a semiweekly schedule depositor.
The lookback period is the second calendar year preceding the current calendar year. For example, the lookback period for 2010 is 2008.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195588
Example of deposit schedule based on lookback period.(p14)
Rose Co. reported taxes on Form 943 as follows.
- 2008 — $48,000
- 2009 — $60,000
Rose Co. is a monthly schedule depositor for 2010 because its taxes for the lookback period ($48,000 for calendar year 2008) were not more than $50,000. However, for 2011, Rose Co. is a semiweekly schedule depositor because the total taxes for its lookback period ($60,000 for calendar year 2009) exceeded $50,000. taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195589
To determine your taxes for the lookback period, use only the tax that you reported on the original return (Form 943, line 9). Do not include adjustments shown on Form 943-X, Adjusted Employer's Annual Federal Tax Return for Agricultural Employees or Claim for Refund. taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195590
Example of adjustments.(p15)
An employer originally reported total tax of $45,000 for the lookback period in 2008. The employer discovered during March 2010 that the tax during the lookback period was understated by $10,000 and corrected this error by filing Form 943-X. The total tax reported in the lookback period is still $45,000. The $10,000 adjustment is also not treated as part of the 2010 taxes.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195591
The term "deposit period" refers to the period during which tax liabilities are accumulated for each required deposit due date. For monthly schedule depositors, the deposit period is a calendar month. The deposit periods for semiweekly schedule depositors are Wednesday through Friday and Saturday through Tuesday.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195592
If the total tax reported on line 9 of Form 943 for the lookback period is $50,000 or less, you are a monthly schedule depositor for the current year. You must deposit Form 943 taxes on payments made during a calendar month by the 15th day of the following month.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195593
Red Co. is a seasonal employer and a monthly schedule depositor. It pays wages each Friday. It paid wages during August 2010, but did not pay any wages during September. Red Co. must deposit the combined tax liabilities for the August paydays by September 15. Red Co. does not have a deposit requirement for September (that is, due by October 15) because no wages were paid in September; therefore, it did not have a tax liability for September.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195594
For agricultural employers, your tax liability for any year in the lookback period before the date you started or acquired your business is considered to be zero. Therefore, you are a monthly schedule depositor for the first and second calendar years of your agricultural business (but see the $100,000 Next-Day Deposit Rule
You are a semiweekly schedule depositor for a calendar year if the total taxes on line 9 of Form 943 during your lookback period were more than $50,000. Under the semiweekly deposit schedule, deposit Form 943 taxes for payments made on Wednesday, Thursday, and/or Friday by the following Wednesday. Deposit amounts accumulated for payments made on Saturday, Sunday, Monday, and/or Tuesday by the following Friday.
Semiweekly depositors are not required to deposit twice a week if their payments were in the same semiweekly period unless the $100,000 Next-Day Deposit Rule
(discussed later) applies. For example, if you made a payment on both Wednesday and Friday and incurred taxes of $10,000 for each pay date, deposit the $20,000 by the following Wednesday. If you made no additional payments on Saturday through Tuesday, no deposit is due on Friday.
Semiweekly schedule depositors must complete Form 943-A and submit it with Form 943.
Semiweekly Deposit Schedule
|IF the payday falls on a...|| THEN deposit taxes by|
|Wednesday, Thursday, and/or Friday|| Wednesday|
|Saturday, Sunday, Monday, and/or Tuesday|| Friday|
Green, Inc., a semiweekly schedule depositor, pays wages on the last day of each month. Green, Inc., will deposit only once a month, but the deposit will be made under the semiweekly deposit schedule as follows. Green, Inc.'s tax liability for the taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195601
April 30, 2010 (Friday), wage payment must be deposited by May 5, 2010 (Wednesday).
If you have more than one pay date during a semiweekly period and the pay dates fall in different calendar quarters, you will need to make separate deposits for the separate liabilities. For example, if you have a pay date on Wednesday, September 29, 2010 (third quarter), and another pay date on Friday, October 1, 2010 (fourth quarter), two separate deposits will be required even though the pay dates fall within the same semiweekly period. Both deposits will be due Wednesday, October 6, 2010 (three banking days from the end of the semiweekly deposit period).taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195602
If a deposit is required to be made on a day that is not a banking day, the deposit is considered on time if it is made by the next banking day. In addition to federal and state bank holidays, Saturdays and Sundays are treated as nonbanking days. For example, if a deposit is required to be made on Friday, but Friday is not a banking day, the deposit is considered timely if it is made by the following Monday (if Monday is a banking day).taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195603
will always have 3 banking days to make a deposit. That is, if any of the 3 weekdays after the end of a semiweekly period is a banking holiday, you will have 1 additional banking day to deposit. For example, if a semiweekly schedule depositor accumulated taxes on Friday and the following Monday is not a banking day, the deposit normally due on Wednesday may be made on Thursday (allowing 3 banking days to make the deposit).taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195604
If you accumulate $100,000 or more of Form 943 taxes (that is, taxes reported on line 11) on any day during a deposit period, you must deposit the tax by the close of the next banking day, whether you are a monthly or a semiweekly schedule depositor.
For purposes of the $100,000 rule, do not continue accumulating a tax liability after the end of a deposit period. For example, if a semiweekly schedule depositor has accumulated a liability of $95,000 on a Tuesday (of a Saturday-through-Tuesday deposit period) and accumulated a $10,000 liability on Wednesday, the $100,000 next-day deposit rule does not apply because the $10,000 is accumulated in the next deposit period. Thus, $95,000 must be deposited on Friday and $10,000 must be deposited on the following Wednesday.
In addition, once you accumulate at least $100,000 in a deposit period, stop accumulating at the end of that day and begin to accumulate anew on the next day. For example, Fir Co. is a semiweekly schedule depositor. On Monday, Fir Co. accumulates taxes of $110,000 and must deposit this amount on Tuesday, the next banking day. On Tuesday, Fir Co. accumulates additional taxes of $30,000. Because the $30,000 is not added to the previous $110,000 and is less than $100,000, Fir Co. does not have to deposit the $30,000 until Friday (following the semiweekly deposit schedule).
If you are a monthly schedule depositor and you accumulate a $100,000 tax liability on any day, you become a semiweekly schedule depositor on the next day and remain so for the remainder of the calendar year and for the following calendar year.
Elm, Inc., started business on April 2, 2010. Because Elm, Inc., is a new employer, the taxes for its lookback period are considered to be zero; therefore, Elm, Inc., is a monthly schedule depositor. On April 9, Elm, Inc., paid wages for the first time and accumulated taxes of $50,000. On taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195607
April 16 (Friday), Elm, Inc., paid wages and accumulated taxes of $60,000, for a total of $110,000. Because Elm, Inc., accumulated $110,000 on April 16, it must deposit $110,000 by April 19 (Monday), the next banking day.
You are required to deposit 100% of your tax liability on or before the deposit due date. However, penalties will not be applied for depositing less than 100% if both of the following conditions are met.
- Any deposit shortfall does not exceed the greater of $100 or 2% of the amount of taxes otherwise required to be deposited.
- The deposit shortfall is paid or deposited by the shortfall makeup date as described below.
- Monthly Schedule Depositor—Deposit the shortfall or pay it with your return by the due date of your Form 943. You may pay the shortfall with your Form 943 even if the amount is $2,500 or more.
- Semiweekly Schedule Depositor—Deposit by the earlier of (a) the first Wednesday or Friday (whichever comes first) that falls on or after the 15th of the month following the month in which the shortfall occurred, or (b) the due date for Form 943. For example, if a semiweekly schedule depositor has a deposit shortfall during February 2010, the shortfall makeup date is March 17, 2010 (Wednesday).
The two methods of depositing employment taxes are discussed below. See Payment with return
on page 14 for exceptions explaining when taxes may be paid with the tax return instead of being deposited.
You must make electronic deposits of all depository taxes (such as employment tax, excise tax, and corporate income tax) using the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) in 2010 if:
- Your total deposits of such taxes in 2008 were more than $200,000, or
- You were required to use EFTPS in 2009.
If you are required to use EFTPS and use Form 8109 instead, you may be subject to a 10% failure-to-deposit penalty. EFTPS is a free service provided by the Department of Treasury. If you are not required to use EFTPS, you may participate voluntarily. To get more information or to enroll in EFTPS, call 1-800-555-4477 (business) or 1-800-316-6541 (individual). You can also visit the EFTPS website at www.eftps.gov
New employers that have a federal tax obligation will be pre-enrolled in EFTPS. Call the toll-free number located in your Employer Identification Number (EIN) Package to activate your enrollment and begin making your tax deposit payments. See When you receive your EIN
on page 6 for more information.
For deposits made by EFTPS to be on time, you must initiate the transaction at least one business day before the date that the deposit is due.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195614
For your records, an Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Trace Number will be provided with each successful payment. The number can be used as a receipt or to trace the payment.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000238944
If you fail to initiate a deposit transaction on EFTPS at least 1 business day before the date a deposit is due, you can still make your deposit on time by using the Federal Reserve-Electronic Tax Application (FR-ETA). If you ever need the same-day payment method, you will need to make arrangements with your financial institution ahead of time. FR-ETA allows you to initiate the transaction and have the funds transferred from your financial institution on the same day. Enrollment in EFTPS automatically enrolls you in FR-ETA. Instructions for using FR-ETA are included in your EFTPS enrollment package. Business taxpayers can use FR-ETA even if not enrolled, but may need help to have their financial institution use the proper format for making the payment. The guidelines for financial institutions for making payments using FR-ETA can be found at www.frbservices.org/files/serviceofferings/pdf/Sameday.pdf
If you are not making deposits by EFTPS, use Form 8109 to make the deposits at an authorized financial institution.
For new employers, if you would like to receive a Federal Tax Deposit (FTD) coupon booklet, call 1-800-829-4933. Allow 5 to 6 weeks for delivery. Consider activating your enrollment in EFTPS now so that you can make timely deposits of employment taxes while waiting for requested FTD coupons.
The IRS will keep track of the number of FTD coupons that you use and will automatically send you additional coupons when you need them. If you do not receive your resupply of FTD coupons, call 1-800-829-4933. You can have the FTD coupon books sent to a branch office, tax preparer, or service bureau that is making your deposits by showing that address on Form 8109-C, FTD Address Change, which is in the FTD coupon book. Filing Form 8109-C will not change your address of record; it will change only the address where the FTD coupons are mailed. The FTD coupons will be preprinted with your name, address, and EIN. They have entry spaces for indicating the type of tax and the tax period for which the deposit is made.
It is very important to clearly mark the correct type of tax and tax period on each FTD coupon. This information is used by the IRS to credit your account.
If you have branch offices depositing taxes, give them FTD coupons and complete instructions so that they can deposit the taxes when due.
Please use only your FTD coupons. If you use anyone else's FTD coupon, you may be subject to a failure-to-deposit penalty. This is because your account will be underpaid by the amount of the deposit credited to the other person's account. See Deposit Penalties
, later, for penalty amounts.
Mail or deliver each FTD coupon and a single payment covering the taxes to be deposited to an authorized depositary. An authorized depositary is a financial institution (for example, a commercial bank) that is authorized to accept federal tax deposits. Follow the instructions in the FTD coupon book. Make your check or money order payable to the depositary. To help ensure proper crediting of your account, include your EIN, the type of tax (for example, Form 943), and the tax period to which the payment applies on your check or money order.
Authorized depositaries must accept cash, a postal money order drawn to the order of the depositary, or a check or draft drawn on and to the order of the depositary. You may deposit taxes with a check drawn on another financial institution only if the depositary is willing to accept that form of payment. Be sure that the financial institution where you make deposits is an authorized depositary. Deposits made at an unauthorized institution may be subject to the failure-to-deposit penalty.
If you prefer, you may mail your coupon and payment to:
Federal Tax Deposit Processing
P.O. Box 970030
St. Louis, MO 63197.
Make your check or money order payable to "Financial Agent."
The Financial Agent cannot process foreign checks. If you send a check written on a foreign bank to pay a federal tax deposit, you generally will be charged a deposit penalty and will receive a bill in the mail. A foreign bank is a financial institution that is not incorporated under the laws of the United States, any U.S. state, any U.S. possession, or the District of Columbia.
You may enroll in the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS), which will allow you to make electronic payments at no charge to you. Instructions for enrollment are available at www.eftps.gov
You may also make the payments by wire transfer, through EFTPS, without being enrolled. A same day payment is initiated by your financial institution and can be used by businesses for making EFTPS tax payments. Please check with your financial institution regarding availability, deadlines, and costs. Generally, your bank will charge you a fee for payments made this way.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195618
The IRS determines if deposits are on time by the date that they are received by an authorized depositary. To be considered timely, the funds must be available to the depositary on the deposit due date before the institution's daily cutoff deadline. Contact your local depositary for information concerning check clearance and cutoff schedules. However, a deposit received by the authorized depositary after the due date will be considered timely if the taxpayer establishes that it was mailed in the United States in a properly addressed, postage prepaid envelope at least 2 days before the due date.
If you are required to deposit any taxes more than once a month, any deposit of $20,000 or more must be received by the authorized depositary by its due date to be timely. See section 7502(e)(3) for more information.
If you have applied for an EIN but have not received it and you must make a deposit, make the deposit with the IRS. Do not make the deposit at an authorized depositary. Make your check or money order payable to the "United States Treasury" and show on it your name (as shown on Form SS-4), address, kind of tax, period covered, and date you applied for an EIN. Send your deposit with an explanation to your local IRS office or the office where you file Form 943 or Form 945. The addresses are provided in the separate instructions for Forms 943 and 945 and are also available on the IRS website at www.irs.gov
. Do not use Form 8109-B, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, in this situation.
If you do not have a preprinted Form 8109, you may use Form 8109-B to make deposits. Form 8109-B is an over-the-counter FTD coupon that is not preprinted with your identifying information. You may get this form by calling 1-800-829-4933. Be sure to have your EIN ready when you call. You will not be able to obtain Form 8109-B by calling 1-800-TAX-FORM.
Use Form 8109-B to make deposits only if:
- You are a new employer and you have been assigned an EIN, but you have not received your initial supply of Forms 8109; or
- You have not received your resupply of preprinted Forms 8109.
For your records, a stub is provided with each FTD coupon in the coupon book. The FTD coupon itself will not be returned. It is used to credit your account. Your cancelled check, bank receipt, or money order receipt is your deposit record.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195623
Penalties may apply if you do not make required deposits on time, if you make deposits for less than the required amount, or if you do not use EFTPS when required. The penalties do not apply if any failure to make a proper and timely deposit was due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. IRS may also waive deposit penalties if you inadvertently fail to deposit in the first quarter that a deposit is due, or the first quarter during which your frequency of deposits changed, if you timely filed your employment tax return.
For amounts not properly deposited or not deposited on time, the penalty rates are shown next.
| 2% ||Deposits made 1 to 5 days late.|
| 5% ||Deposits made 6 to 15 days late.|
| 10% ||Deposits made 16 or more days late. Also applies to amounts paid within 10 days of the date of the first notice the IRS sent asking for the tax due.|
| 10% ||Deposits made at an unauthorized financial institution, paid directly to the IRS, or paid with your tax return. But see Depositing without an EIN , earlier, and Payment with return on page 14 for exceptions.|
| 10% ||Amounts subject to electronic deposit requirements but not deposited using EFTPS.|
| 15% ||Amounts still unpaid more than 10 days after the date of the first notice that the IRS sent asking for the tax due or the day on which you received notice and demand for immediate payment, whichever is earlier.|
Late deposit penalty amounts are determined using calendar days, starting from the due date of the liability.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195627
Deposits generally are applied to the most recent tax liability within the year. If you receive a failure-to-deposit penalty notice, you may designate how your deposits are to be applied in order to minimize the amount of the penalty, if you do so within 90 days of the date of the notice. Follow the instructions on the penalty notice that you received. For examples on how the IRS will apply deposits and more information on designating deposits, see Revenue Procedure 2001-58. You can find Revenue Procedure 2001-58 on page 579 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-50 at www.irs.gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb01-50.pdf
Cedar, Inc., is required to make a deposit of $1,000 on June 15 and $1,500 on July 15. It does not make the deposit on June 15. On July 15, Cedar, Inc., deposits $2,000. Under the deposits rule, which applies deposits to the most recent tax liability, $1,500 of the deposit is applied to the July 15 deposit and the remaining $500 is applied to the June deposit. Accordingly, $500 of the June 15 liability remains undeposited. The penalty on this underdeposit will apply as explained above.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195629
If federal income, social security, and Medicare taxes that must be withheld are not withheld or are not deposited or paid to the United States Treasury, the trust fund recovery penalty may apply. The penalty is the full amount of the unpaid trust fund tax. This penalty may apply to you if these unpaid taxes cannot be immediately collected from the employer or business.
The trust fund recovery penalty may be imposed on all persons who are determined by the IRS to be responsible for collecting, accounting for, and paying over these taxes, and who acted willfully in not doing so.
A responsible person can be an officer or employee of a corporation, a partner or employee of a partnership, an accountant, a volunteer director/trustee, or an employee of a sole proprietorship. A responsible person also may include one who signs checks for the business or otherwise has authority to cause the spending of business funds.
Willfully means voluntarily, consciously, and intentionally. A responsible person acts willfully if the person knows that the required actions are not taking place.taxmap/pubs/p51-006.htm#en_us_publink1000195630
IRS may assess an "averaged" failure-to-deposit penalty of 2% to 10% if you are a monthly schedule depositor and did not properly complete line 17 of Form 943 when your tax liability (line 11) shown on Form 943 was $2,500 or more. IRS may also assess this penalty of 2% to 10% if you are a semiweekly schedule depositor and your tax liability (line 11) shown on Form 943 was $2,500 or more and you did any of the following.
- Completed line 17 of Form 943 instead of Form 943-A.
- Failed to attach a properly completed Form 943-A.
- Completed Form 943-A incorrectly, for example, by entering tax deposits instead of tax liabilities in the numbered spaces.
IRS figures the penalty by allocating your total tax liability on line 11 of Form 943 equally throughout the tax period. Your deposits and payments may not be counted as timely because IRS does not know the actual dates of your tax liabilities.
You can avoid the penalty by reviewing your return before filing it. Follow these steps before filing your
- If you are a monthly schedule depositor, report your tax liabilities (not your deposits) in the monthly entry spaces on line 17 of Form 943.
- If you are a semiweekly schedule depositor, report your tax liabilities (not your deposits) on Form 943-A in the lines that represent the dates you paid your employees.
- Verify that your total liability shown on line 17 of Form 943 or on line M of Form 943-A equals your tax liability shown on line 11 of Form 943.
- Do not show negative amounts on line 17 of Form 943 or Form 943-A. If a prior period adjustment results in a decrease in your tax liability, reduce your liability for the day you discovered the error by the tax decrease resulting from the error, but not below zero. Apply any remaining decrease to subsequent liabilities.
- For prior period errors discovered after December 31, 2008, do not adjust your tax liabilities reported on line 17 of Form 943 or on Form 943-A.
If you employ both farm and nonfarm workers, you must treat employment taxes for the farmworkers (Form 943 taxes) separately from employment taxes for the nonfarm workers (Form 941 and 944 taxes). Form 943 taxes and Form 941/944 taxes are not combined for purposes of applying any of the deposit schedule rules.
If a deposit is due, deposit the Form 941/944 taxes and the Form 943 taxes with separate FTD coupons, or by making separate EFTPS deposits. For example, if you are a monthly schedule depositor for both Forms 941/944 and 943 taxes and your tax liability at the end of June is $1,500 reportable on Form 941/944 and $1,200 reportable on Form 943, deposit both amounts by July 15. Use one FTD coupon to deposit the $1,500 of Form 941/944 taxes and another FTD coupon to deposit the $1,200 of Form 943 taxes.