Robert Smith, a U.S. citizen, is a salesman who lived and worked in Country X for all of 2009, except for one week he spent in the United States on business. He is single and under 65. He is a cash-basis taxpayer who uses the calendar year as his tax year.
During the year, Robert received income from sources within Country X and the United States.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224675
Robert received wages of $2,400 for services performed during the one week in the United States. He also received dividend income of $3,000 from sources within the United States. None of the dividends are qualified dividends.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224676
Robert received the following income from Country X during the year and paid tax on the income to Country X on December 31. The conversion rate throughout the year was 2 pesos to each U.S. dollar (2:1).
| || Income || Tax |
| ||$130,000 wages||$32,400|
| ||(260,000 pesos)||(64,800 pesos)|
| ||$4,000 dividend income||$450|
| ||(8,000 pesos)||(900 pesos)|
| ||$1,000 interest income||$50|
| ||(2,000 pesos)||(100 pesos)|
Robert is a bona fide resident of Country X and figures his allowable exclusion of foreign earned income on Form 2555, Foreign Earned Income (not illustrated). He excludes $91,400 of the wages earned in Country X. taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224679
Robert was entitled to the following itemized deductions.
|Interest on home mortgage||$5,900|
|Real estate tax||1,500|
|Employee business expenses|
(See the following discussion for computation.)
| 733 |
|Total|| $8,593 |
Robert paid $3,400 of unreimbursed business expenses, of which $1,000 were definitely related to the wages earned in the United States and $2,400 were definitely related to wages earned in Country X.
Robert must prorate the business expenses related to the wages earned in Country X between the wages he includes on his U.S. tax return and the amount he excludes as foreign earned income. He cannot deduct the part of the expenses related to the income that he excludes. He figures his allowable expenses (related to the wages earned in Country X) as follows:
| $38,600 |
His employee business expense deduction is $733. This is the difference between his business expenses of $1,713 ($713 + $1,000 from U.S. business trip) and the 2%-of-adjusted- gross-income limit ($980).
Robert must use two Forms 1116 to figure his allowable foreign tax credit. On one Form 1116, he will mark the block to the left of General category income, and figure his foreign tax credit on the wages of $38,600 (Country X wages minus excluded wages). On the other Form 1116, he will mark the block to the left of Passive category income, and figure his foreign tax credit on his interest income of $1,000 and dividend income of $4,000.
Under the later discussions for each part on the Form 1116, Robert's computations are explained for each Form 1116 that must be completed. Both Forms 1116 are illustrated near the end of this publication.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224684
Before making any entries on Form 1116, Robert must figure his taxable income on Form 1040.
His taxable income is $36,757 figured as follows:
| Gross Income || |
|Wages (Country X)||$130,000|
| Less: Foreign earned income exclusion || 91,400 |
| ||$ 38,600|
|Interest income (Country X)||1,000|
|Dividend income (U.S.)||3,000|
|Dividend income (Country X)|| 4,000 |
|Total (Adjusted gross income)||$49,000|
| Less: Total Itemized Deductions || 8,593 |
|Taxable income before the |
| Less: Personal Exemption || 3,650 |
| Taxable Income || $36,757 |
On each Form 1116, Robert enters $40,407 (his taxable income before the personal exemption) on line 17 of Part III. taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224686
In figuring the limit on both Forms 1116, Robert must separately determine his taxable income from Country X (Form 1116, line 7).taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224687
On this Form 1116, Robert figures his taxable income from Country X for general category income only. He does not include his passive category income of interest and dividends.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224688
Robert enters the foreign wages after exclusion of $38,600 on line 1a.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224689
The unreimbursed employee business expenses related to these foreign source wages included in income are $713, as shown earlier. Robert must determine which part of the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit ($980) is allocable to these employee business expenses. He figures this as follows:
The denominator ($1,713) is the total allowable unreimbursed business expenses ($1,000 + $713). The amount of deductible expenses definitely related to $38,600 of taxable foreign wages is $305 ($713 − $408). He enters $305 on line 2. He attaches this explanation to his Form 1116 that he files with his tax return.
Robert enters $1,500 on line 3a. This is his real estate tax, which is not definitely related to income from any source. Robert must prorate this itemized deduction by using the ratio of gross income from Country X in general category income (line 3d) to his gross income from all sources (line 3e). For this purpose, gross income from Country X and gross income from all sources include the $91,400 of wages that qualify for the foreign earned income exclusion. He figures the ratable part of deductions, $1,389, as follows and enters it on line 3g.
| $130,000 |
Robert apportions his qualified home mortgage interest, $5,900, to general category income as follows:
|1.||Enter gross foreign source income of the type shown on Form 1116. Do not enter income excluded on Form 2555|| $38,600 |
|2.||Enter gross income from all sources. Do not enter income excluded on Form 2555|| $49,000 |
|3.||Divide line 1 by line 2 and enter |
the result as a decimal
| .7878 |
|4.||Enter deductible home mortgage interest (from Schedule A (Form 1040))|| $ 5,900 |
|5.||Multiply line 4 by line 3. Enter the result here and on Form 1116, |
| $ 4,648 |
Robert enters this amount, $4,648, on line 4a.
Robert adds the amounts on lines 2, 3g, and 4a, and enters that total ($6,342) on line 6.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224696
He subtracts the amount on line 6 from the amount on line 1a to arrive at foreign source taxable income of $32,258 in this category. Robert enters this amount on line 7.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224697
On this Form 1116, Robert determines the taxable income from Country X for passive interest and dividend income.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224698
He adds the $1,000 interest income and the $4,000 dividend income ($5,000) from Country X and enters the total ($5,000) on line 1a. None of the dividends are qualified dividends.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224699
Robert figures the part of his itemized deduction (real estate tax) allocable to passive category income as follows and enters the amount on line 3g.
| $5,000 |
Robert apportions the qualified home mortgage interest to passive category income as follows:
|1.||Enter gross foreign source income of the type shown on Form 1116. Do not enter income excluded on Form 2555|| || $ 5,000 |
|2.||Enter gross income from all sources. Do not enter income excluded on Form 2555|| || $49,000 |
|3.||Divide line 1 by line 2 and enter |
the result as a decimal
| || .1020 |
|4.||Enter deductible home mortgage interest (from Schedule A (Form 1040))|| || $ 5,900 |
|5.||Multiply line 4 by line 3. Enter the result here and on Form 1116, line 4a|| || $ 602 |
He enters this amount, $602, on line 4a.
Robert adds the amounts on lines 3g and 4a and enters that total ($655) on line 6.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224704
He subtracts the amount on line 6 from the amount on line 1a to arrive at foreign source taxable income of $4,345 in this category. Robert enters this amount on line 7.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224705
Robert uses Part II, Form 1116, to report the foreign tax paid or accrued on income from foreign sources.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224706
On this Form 1116, Robert enters the amount of foreign taxes paid (withheld at source), in foreign currency and in U.S. dollars, on the wages from Country X.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224707
On this Form 1116, Robert enters the amount of foreign taxes paid, in foreign currency and in U.S. dollars, on the interest and dividend income.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224708
Robert figures the amount of foreign tax credit in Part III on each Form 1116.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224709
On this Form 1116, Robert figures the amount of foreign tax credit allowable for the foreign taxes paid on his wages from Country X.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224710
He has a carryover of $200 for unused foreign taxes paid in 2008 and enters that amount on line 10. He attaches a schedule showing how he figured his $200 carryover to 2009 after carrying back the unused $350 tax paid in 2008 to 2007. (This schedule is shown in Table 6.) The unused foreign tax in 2008 and the excess limit in 2007 are general category income. The unused foreign tax of $200 is carried over to general category income in 2009.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224711
On line 12, Robert must reduce the total foreign taxes paid by the amount related to the wages he excludes as foreign earned income. To do this, he multiplies the $32,400 foreign tax he paid on his foreign wages by a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is his foreign earned income exclusion ($91,400) minus a proportionate part of his definitely related business expenses ($2,400 − $713 = $1,687). The denominator of the fraction is his total foreign wages ($130,000) minus his total definitely related business expenses ($2,400).
|$32,400||×|| $91,400–$1,687 |
He enters the result, $22,780 on line 12.
His total foreign taxes available for credit are $9,820 ($200 carryover from 2008 + $9,620 paid in 2009 ($32,400 − $22,780)). taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000242798
Robert figured his tax using the Foreign Earned Income Tax Worksheet in the Form 1040 instructions.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224714
By completing the rest of Part III, Robert finds that his maximum credit is $8,211. taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224715
The foreign tax credit on the general category income is the lesser of the foreign tax available for credit, $9,820, or the maximum credit on line 20, $8,211.
Table 6. Robert's Schedule Showing Computation of His Carryover
| || 2007 || 2008 |
|Maximum credit allowable under limit||$750||$1,200|
|Foreign tax paid in tax year|| 600 || 1,550 |
|Unused foreign tax (+) to be carried over or excess of limit (-) over tax||−$150||+$350|
|Tax credit carried back from 2008|| 150 || |
|Net excess tax to be carried over to 2009||0||+$350|
|Less carrybacks to 2007|| 150 |
|Amount carried over to 2009|| $200 |
Robert now figures the foreign tax credit allowable for the foreign taxes he paid on his interest and dividend income from Country X.
By completing Part III of Form 1116, he finds that his maximum credit for passive category income on line 20 is $1,106.
The foreign tax credit for passive category income is limited to the amount of tax paid, $500.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000224717
Robert summarizes his foreign tax credits for the two types of income on Part IV of the Form 1116 with the largest amount on line 21. He uses the Part IV of Form 1116—General category income.
Robert leaves line 28 blank because he did not participate in or cooperate with an international boycott during the tax year. The allowable foreign tax credit is $8,711 ($500 + $8,211), shown on line 29. He also enters this amount on Form 1040, line 47.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000244962
Robert now determines if he has any unused foreign taxes that can be used as a carryback or carryover to other tax years.taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000244949
Robert has 2009 unused foreign taxes of $1,409 ($9,620 − $8,211) and $200 of 2008 unused foreign taxes available as a carryover to 2010 and later years. (The foreign taxes related to his foreign earned income exclusion are not available for carryover.) He cannot carry back any part of the 2009 unused taxes to 2008 as shown in Table 6. taxmap/pubs/p514-009.htm#en_us_publink1000244956
Robert has no unused foreign taxes for 2009.