As the withholding agent, you generally must request that the payee provide you with its U.S. taxpayer identification number (TIN). You must include the payee's TIN on forms, statements, and other tax documents. The payee's TIN may be any of the following.
- An individual may have a social security number (SSN). If the individual does not have and is eligible for an SSN, he or she must use Form SS-5 to get an SSN. The Social Security Administration will tell the individual if he or she is eligible to get an SSN.
- An individual may have an IRS individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN). If the individual does not have and is not eligible for an SSN, he or she must apply for an ITIN by using Form W-7.
- Any person other than an individual, and any individual who is an employer or who is engaged in a U.S. trade or business as a sole proprietor, must have an employer identification number (EIN). Use Form SS-4 to get an EIN.
A TIN must be on a withholding certificate if the beneficial owner is claiming any of the following.
- Tax treaty benefits (see Exceptions to TIN requirement, later).
- Income is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business.
- Exemption for certain annuities (see Pensions, Annuities, and Alimony, earlier).
- Exemption based on exempt organization or private foundation status.
In addition, a TIN must be on a withholding certificate from a person claiming to be any of the following.
- Qualified intermediary.
- Withholding foreign partnership.
- Withholding foreign trust.
- Exempt organization.
- U.S. branch of a foreign person treated as a U.S. person (see section 1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv) of the regulations).
- U.S. person.
A foreign person does not have to provide a U.S. TIN to claim a reduced rate of withholding under a tax treaty if the requirements for the following exceptions are met.
- Income from marketable securities (discussed earlier under Form W-8BEN).
- Unexpected payment to an individual (discussed next).
A Form W-8BEN or a Form 8233 provided by a nonresident alien to get treaty benefits does not need a U.S. TIN if you, the withholding agent, meet all the following requirements.
- You are an acceptance agent.
- You can request an ITIN for a payee on an expedited basis.
- You are required to make an unexpected payment to the nonresident alien.
- You cannot get the ITIN because the IRS is not issuing ITINs at the time you make the payment or at any earlier time after you know you have to make the payment.
- You cannot reasonably delay making the unexpected payment.
- You submit a completed Form W-7 for the payee, with a certification that you have reviewed the required documentation and have no actual knowledge or reason to know that the documentation is not complete or accurate, to the IRS during the first business day after you made the payment.
An acceptance agent is a person who, under a written agreement with the IRS, is authorized to assist alien individuals and other foreign persons get ITINs or EINs. For information on the application procedures for becoming an acceptance agent, see Rev. Proc. 2006-10, 2006-2 I.R.B. 293, available at www.irs.gov/irb/2006-02_IRB/ar13.html
A payment is unexpected if you or the beneficial owner could not have reasonably anticipated the payment during a time when an ITIN could be obtained. This could be due to the nature of the payment or the circumstances in which the payment is made. A payment is not considered unexpected solely because the amount of the payment is not fixed. taxmap/pubs/p515-006.htm#en_us_publink1000225032
Mary, a citizen and resident of Ireland, visits the United States and wins $5,000 playing a slot machine in a casino. Under the treaty with Ireland, the winnings are not subject to U.S. tax. Mary claims the treaty benefits by providing a Form W-8BEN to the casino upon winning at the slot machine. However, she does not have an ITIN. The casino is an acceptance agent that can request an ITIN on an expedited basis.
Situation 1. Assume that Mary won the money on Sunday. Since the IRS does not issue ITINs on Sunday, the casino can pay $5,000 to Mary without withholding U.S. tax. The casino must, on the following Monday, fax a completed Form W-7 for Mary, including the required certification, to the IRS for an expedited ITIN.
Situation 2. Assume that Mary won the money on Monday. To pay the winnings without withholding U.S. tax, the casino must apply for and get an ITIN for Mary because an expedited ITIN is available from the IRS at the time of the payment.