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IRS.gov Website
Publication 519
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222772

Aliens Required To Obtain Sailing or Departure Permits(p62)

rule
If you do not fall into one of the categories listed under Aliens Not Required To Obtain Sailing or Departure Permits, you must obtain a sailing or departure permit. To obtain a permit, file Form 1040-C or Form 2063 (whichever applies) with your local IRS office before you leave the United States. See Forms To File, later. You must also pay all the tax shown as due on Form 1040-C and any taxes due for past years. See Paying Taxes and Obtaining Refunds, later.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222775

Getting a Sailing  
or Departure Permit(p62)

rule
The following discussion covers when and where to get your sailing permit.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222776

Where to get a sailing or departure permit.(p62)

rule
If you have been working in the United States, you should get the permit from an IRS office in the area of your employment, or you may obtain one from an IRS office in the area of your departure.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222777

When to get a sailing or departure permit.(p62)

rule
You should get your sailing or departure permit at least 2 weeks before you plan to leave. You cannot apply earlier than 30 days before your planned departure date. Do not wait until the last minute in case there are unexpected problems.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222778

Papers to submit.(p62)

rule
Getting your sailing or departure permit will go faster if you bring to the IRS office papers and documents related to your income and your stay in the United States. Bring the following records with you if they apply.
  1. Your passport and alien registration card or visa.
  2. Copies of your U.S. income tax returns filed for the past 2 years. If you were in the United States for less than 2 years, bring the income tax returns you filed for that period.
  3. Receipts for income taxes paid on these returns.
  4. Receipts, bank records, canceled checks, and other documents that prove your deductions, business expenses, and dependents claimed on your returns.
  5. A statement from each employer showing wages paid and tax withheld from January 1 of the current year to the date of departure if you were an employee. If you were self-employed, you must bring a statement of income and expenses up to the date you plan to leave.
  6. Proof of estimated tax payments for the past year and this year.
  7. Documents showing any gain or loss from the sale of personal property and/or real property, including capital assets and merchandise.
  8. Documents relating to scholarship or fellowship grants including:
    1. Verification of the grantor, source, and purpose of the grant.
    2. Copies of the application for, and approval of, the grant.
    3. A statement of the amount paid, and your duties and obligations under the grant.
    4. A list of any previous grants.
  9. Documents indicating you qualify for any special tax treaty benefits claimed.
  10. Document verifying your date of departure from the United States, such as an airline ticket.
  11. Document verifying your U.S. taxpayer identification number, such as a social security card or an IRS issued Notice CP 565 showing your individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN).
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222779
Note.(p62)
If you are married and reside in a community property state, also bring the above-listed documents for your spouse. This applies whether or not your spouse requires a permit.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222780

Forms To File(p62)

rule
If you must get a sailing or departure permit, you must file Form 2063 or Form 1040-C. Employees in the IRS office can assist in filing these forms. Both forms have a "certificate of compliance" section. When the certificate of compliance is signed by an agent of the Field Assistance Area Director, it certifies that your U.S. tax obligations have been satisfied according to available information. Your Form 1040-C copy of the signed certificate, or the one detached from Form 2063, is your sailing or departure permit.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222781

Form 2063(p62)

rule
This is a short form that asks for certain information but does not include a tax computation. The following departing aliens can get their sailing or departure permits by filing Form 2063.
Aliens in either of these categories who have not filed an income tax return or paid income tax for any tax year must file the return and pay the income tax before they can be issued a sailing or departure permit on Form 2063.
The sailing or departure permit detached from Form 2063 can be used for all departures during the current year. However, the IRS may cancel the sailing or departure permit for any later departure if it believes the collection of income tax is jeopardized by that later departure.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222782

Form 1040-C(p62)

rule
If you must get a sailing or departure permit and you do not qualify to file Form 2063, you must file Form 1040-C.
Ordinarily, all income received or reasonably expected to be received during the tax year up to and including the date of departure must be reported on Form 1040-C and the tax on it must be paid. When you pay any tax shown as due on the Form 1040-C, and you file all returns and pay all tax due for previous years, you will receive a sailing or departure permit. However, the IRS may permit you to furnish a bond guaranteeing payment instead of paying the taxes for certain years. See Bond To Ensure Payment, discussed later. The sailing or departure permit issued under the conditions in this paragraph is only for the specific departure for which it is issued.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222784

Returning to the United States.(p62)

rule
If you furnish the IRS with information showing, to the satisfaction of the IRS, that you intend to return to the United States and that your departure does not jeopardize the collection of income tax, you can get a sailing or departure permit by filing Form 1040-C without having to pay the tax shown on it. You must, however, file all income tax returns that have not yet been filed as required, and pay all income tax that is due on these returns.
Your Form 1040-C must include all income received and reasonably expected to be received during the entire year of departure. The sailing or departure permit issued with this Form 1040-C can be used for all departures during the current year. However, the Service may cancel the sailing or departure permit for any later departure if the payment of income tax appears to be in jeopardy.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222785

Joint return on Form 1040-C.(p62)

rule
Departing husbands and wives who are nonresident aliens cannot file joint returns. However, if both spouses are resident aliens, they can file a joint return on Form 1040-C if:
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222786

Paying Taxes and  
Obtaining Refunds(p63)

rule
You must pay all tax shown as due on the Form 1040-C at the time of filing it, except when a bond is furnished, or the IRS is satisfied that your departure does not jeopardize the collection of income tax. You must also pay any taxes due for past years. If the tax computation on Form 1040-C results in an overpayment, there is no tax to pay at the time you file that return. However, the IRS cannot provide a refund at the time of departure. If you are due a refund, you must file either Form 1040NR or Form 1040NR-EZ at the end of the tax year.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222787

Bond To Ensure Payment(p63)

rule
Usually, you must pay the tax shown as due on Form 1040-C when you file it. However, if you pay all taxes due that you owe for prior years, you can furnish a bond guaranteeing payment instead of paying the income taxes shown as due on the Form 1040-C or the tax return for the preceding year if the period for filing that return has not expired.
The bond must equal the tax due plus interest to the date of payment as figured by the IRS. Information about the form of bond and security on it can be obtained from your IRS office.
taxmap/pubs/p519-051.htm#en_us_publink1000222788

Filing Annual U.S.  
Income Tax Returns(p63)

rule
Form 1040-C is not an annual U.S. income tax return. If an income tax return is required by law, that return must be filed even though a Form 1040-C has already been filed. Chapters 5 and 7 discuss filing an annual U.S. income tax return. The tax paid with Form 1040-C should be taken as a credit against the tax liability for the entire tax year on your annual U.S. income tax return.