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IRS.gov Website
Publication 590
taxmap/pubs/p590-011.htm#en_us_publink1000230799

Are Distributions Taxable?(p38)

rule
In general, distributions from a traditional IRA are taxable in the year you receive them.
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Failed financial institutions.(p38)

rule
Distributions from a traditional IRA are taxable in the year you receive them even if they are made without your consent by a state agency as receiver of an insolvent savings institution. This means you must include such distributions in your gross income unless you roll them over. For an exception to the 1-year waiting period rule for rollovers of certain distributions from failed financial institutions, see Exception under Rollover From One IRA Into Another, earlier.
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Exceptions.(p39)

rule
Exceptions to distributions from traditional IRAs being taxable in the year you receive them are:
EIC
Although a conversion of a traditional IRA is considered a rollover for Roth IRA purposes, it is not an exception to the rule that distributions from a traditional IRA are taxable in the year you receive them. Conversion distributions are includible in your gross income subject to this rule and the special rules for conversions explained earlier and in chapter 2.
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Qualified Charitable Distributions(p39)

rule
Deposit
Special rules apply if you made a qualified charitable distribution (QCD) in January 2011 that you are electing to treat as made in 2010. See January 2011 QCDs later for more details.
A QCD is generally a nontaxable distribution made directly by the trustee of your IRA (other than a SEP or SIMPLE IRA) to an organization eligible to receive tax-deductible contributions. You must be at least age 701/2 when the distribution was made. Also, you must have the same type of acknowledgement of your contribution that you would need to claim a deduction for a charitable contribution. See Records To Keep in Publication 526, Charitable Contributions. The maximum annual exclusion for QCDs is $100,000. Any QCD in excess of the $100,000 exclusion limit is included in income as any other distribution. If you file a joint return, your spouse can also have a QCD and exclude up to $100,000. The amount of the QCD is limited to the amount of the distribution that would otherwise be included in income. If your IRA includes nondeductible contributions, the distribution is first considered to be paid out of otherwise taxable income.
Deposit
A QCD will count towards your required minimum distribution.
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Example.(p39)
On November 1, 2010, Jeff, age 75, directed the trustee of his IRA to make a distribution of $25,000 directly to a qualified 501(c)(3) organization (a charitable organization eligible to receive tax-deductible contributions). The total value of Jeff's IRA is $30,000 and consists of $20,000 of deductible contributions and earnings and $10,000 of nondeductible contributions (basis). Since Jeff is at least age 701/2 and the distribution is made directly by the trustee to a qualified organization, the part of the distribution that would otherwise be includible in Jeff's income ($20,000) is a QCD. In this case, Jeff has made a QCD of $20,000 (his deductible contributions and earnings). Because Jeff made a distribution of nondeductible contributions from his IRA, he must file Form 8606, Nondeductible IRAs, with his return. Jeff includes the total distribution ($25,000) on line 15a of Form 1040. He completes Form 8606 to determine the amount to enter on line 15b of Form 1040 and the remaining basis in his IRA. Jeff enters -0- on line 15b. This is Jeff's only IRA and he took no other distributions in 2010. He also enters "QCD" next to line 15b to indicate a qualified charitable distribution. After the distribution, his basis in his IRA is $5,000. If Jeff itemizes his deductions and files Schedule A with Form 1040, the $5,000 portion of the distribution attributable to the nondeductible contributions can be deducted as a charitable contribution, subject to AGI limits. He cannot take a charitable contribution deduction for the $20,000 portion of the distribution that was not included in his income.
EIC
You cannot claim a charitable contribution deduction for any QCD not included in your income.
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January 2011 QCDs.(p39)

rule
If you made a QCD in January 2011, you can elect to have it treated as made in 2010. If you make this election, the full amount of the QCD will count towards your 2010 required minimum distribution. However, you must report the QCD on both your 2010 and 2011 tax returns as discussed below.
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2010 Reporting.(p39)
You will not receive a 2010 Form 1099-R reporting a QCD you made in January 2011 that you are electing to treat as made in 2010. However, you must report the full amount of the QCD on your 2010 Form 1040, line 15a; Form 1040A, line 11a; or Form 1040NR, line 16a (even if it is in excess of the $100,000 QCD exclusion limit). Do not include any of the QCD, including any amount of the QCD in excess of the $100,000 exclusion limit on your 2010 Form 1040, line 15b; Form 1040A, line 11b; or Form 1040NR, line 16b. Be sure to enter "QCD" next to Form 1040, line 15b; Form 1040A, line 11b; or Form 1040NR, line 16b. You will receive a 2011 Form 1099-R in 2012 reporting this QCD.
If your are required to file a 2010 Form 5329 because you failed to take your total required minimum distributions for the year, include the full amount of the January QCD on Form 5329, line 51.
You may be required to file Form 8606 if: See the 2010 Form 8606 and its instructions for more information.
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2011 Reporting.(p39)
You will receive a 2011 Form 1099-R in 2012 reporting a January 2011 QCD. It is anticipated that the January 2011 QCD will be required to be included on your 2011 tax return, so keep records. See the 2011 Publication 590 for more information on reporting January QCDs in 2011.
Deposit
For determining your 2011 required minimum distribution, reduce your December 31, 2010 IRA balance by the full amount of the January 2011 QCD that you elected to treat as made in 2010.
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Ordinary income.(p40)

rule
Distributions from traditional IRAs that you include in income are taxed as ordinary income.
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No special treatment.(p40)

rule
In figuring your tax, you cannot use the 10-year tax option or capital gain treatment that applies to lump-sum distributions from qualified retirement plans.
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Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable(p40)

rule
Distributions from your traditional IRA may be fully or partly taxable, depending on whether your IRA includes any nondeductible contributions.
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Fully taxable.(p40)

rule
If only deductible contributions were made to your traditional IRA (or IRAs, if you have more than one), you have no basis in your IRA. Because you have no basis in your IRA, any distributions are fully taxable when received. See Reporting and Withholding Requirements for Taxable Amounts, later.
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Partly taxable.(p40)

rule
If you made nondeductible contributions or rolled over any after-tax amounts to any of your traditional IRAs, you have a cost basis (investment in the contract) equal to the amount of those contributions. These nondeductible contributions are not taxed when they are distributed to you. They are a return of your investment in your IRA.
Only the part of the distribution that represents nondeductible contributions and rolled over after-tax amounts (your cost basis) is tax free. If nondeductible contributions have been made or after-tax amounts have been rolled over to your IRA, distributions consist partly of nondeductible contributions (basis) and partly of deductible contributions, earnings, and gains (if there are any). Until all of your basis has been distributed, each distribution is partly nontaxable and partly taxable.
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Form 8606.(p40)

rule
You must complete Form 8606, and attach it to your return, if you receive a distribution from a traditional IRA and have ever made nondeductible contributions or rolled over after-tax amounts to any of your traditional IRAs. Using the form, you will figure the nontaxable distributions for 2010, and your total IRA basis for 2010 and earlier years. See the illustrated Forms 8606 in this chapter.
Note.If you are required to file Form 8606, but you are not required to file an income tax return, you still must file Form 8606. Complete Form 8606, sign it, and send it to the IRS at the time and place you would otherwise file an income tax return.
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Figuring the Nontaxable 
and Taxable Amounts(p40)

rule
If your traditional IRA includes nondeductible contributions and you received a distribution from it in 2010, you must use Form 8606 to figure how much of your 2010 IRA distribution is tax free.
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Contribution and distribution in the same year.(p40)

rule
If you received a distribution in 2010 from a traditional IRA and you also made contributions to a traditional IRA for 2010 that may not be fully deductible because of the income limits, you can use Worksheet 1-5 to figure how much of your 2010 IRA distribution is tax free and how much is taxable. Then you can figure the amount of nondeductible contributions to report on Form 8606. Follow the instructions under Reporting your nontaxable distribution on Form 8606, next, to figure your remaining basis after the distribution.
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Reporting your nontaxable distribution on Form 8606.(p40)

rule
To report your nontaxable distribution and to figure the remaining basis in your traditional IRA after distributions, you must complete Worksheet 1-5 before completing Form 8606. Then follow these steps to complete Form 8606.
  1. Use Worksheet 1-2 or the IRA Deduction Worksheet in the Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040NR instructions to figure your deductible contributions to traditional IRAs to report on Form 1040, line 32; Form 1040A, line 17; or Form 1040NR, line 32.
  2. After you complete Worksheet 1-2 or the IRA deduction worksheet in the form instructions, enter your nondeductible contributions to traditional IRAs on line 1 of Form 8606.
  3. Complete lines 2 through 5 of Form 8606.
  4. If line 5 of Form 8606 is less than line 8 of Worksheet 1-5, complete lines 6 through 15 of Form 8606 and stop here.
  5. If line 5 of Form 8606 is equal to or greater than line 8 of Worksheet 1-5, follow instructions 6 and 7, next. Do not complete lines 6 through 12 of Form 8606.
  6. Enter the amount from line 8 of Worksheet 1-5 on lines 13 and 17 of Form 8606.
  7. Complete line 14 of Form 8606.
  8. Enter the amount from line 9 of Worksheet 1-5 (or, if you entered an amount on line 11, the amount from that line) on line 15 of Form 8606.
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Example.(p40)

Rose Green has made the following contributions to her traditional IRAs.
YearDeductibleNondeductible
2003 2,000-0-
2004 2,000-0-
2005 2,000-0-
2006 1,000-0-
2007 1,000-0-
2008 1,000-0-
2009   700 300
Totals$9,700$300
Rose needs to complete Worksheet 1-5, Figuring the Taxable Part of Your IRA Distribution, to determine if her IRA deduction for 2010 will be reduced or eliminated. In 2010, she makes a $2,000 contribution that may be partly nondeductible. She also receives a distribution of $5,000 for conversion to a Roth IRA. She completed the conversion before December 31, 2010, and did not recharacterize any contributions. At the end of 2010, the fair market values of her accounts, including earnings, total $20,000. She did not receive any tax-free distributions in earlier years. The amount she includes in income for 2010 is figured on Worksheet 1-5, Figuring the Taxable Part of Your IRA Distribution—Illustrated.
The illustrated Form 8606 for Rose shows the information required when you need to use Worksheet 1-5 to figure your nontaxable distribution. Assume that the $500 entered on Form 8606, line 1, is the amount Rose figured using instructions 1 and 2 given earlier under Reporting your nontaxable distribution on Form 8606.
Note.There are special rules for 2010 conversions from traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs. Under those rules, Rose would include half of the amount required to be included in income as a result of the conversion in income in 2011 and half in income in 2012. However, Rose elects to include the entire amount in income in 2010. She indicates this election by checking the box on line 19 of her 2010 Form 8606 and entering the amount from line 18 of that Form 8606 on line 19.
For more information on these rules, see Special rules for 2010 conversions from traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs, earlier in this chapter.
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Recognizing Losses on Traditional IRA Investments(p41)

rule
If you have a loss on your traditional IRA investment, you can recognize (include) the loss on your income tax return, but only when all the amounts in all your traditional IRA accounts have been distributed to you and the total distributions are less than your unrecovered basis, if any.
Your basis is the total amount of the nondeductible contributions in your traditional IRAs.
You claim the loss as a miscellaneous itemized deduction, subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit that applies to certain miscellaneous itemized deductions on Schedule A, Form 1040. Any such losses are added back to taxable income for purposes of calculating the alternative minimum tax.
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Example.(p41)

Bill King has made nondeductible contributions to a traditional IRA totaling $2,000, giving him a basis at the end of 2009 of $2,000. By the end of 2010, his IRA earns $400 in interest income. In that year, Bill receives a distribution of $600 ($500 basis + $100 interest), reducing the value of his IRA to $1,800 ($2,000 + $400 − $600) at year's end. Bill figures the taxable part of the distribution and his remaining basis on Form 8606 (illustrated).
In 2011, Bill's IRA has a loss of $500. At the end of that year, Bill's IRA balance is $1,300 ($1,800 − $500). Bill's remaining basis in his IRA is $1,500 ($2,000 − $500). Bill receives the $1,300 balance remaining in the IRA. He can claim a loss for 2011 of $200 (the $1,500 basis minus the $1,300 distribution of the IRA balance).
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Other Special IRA 
Distribution Situations(p41)

rule
Two other special IRA distribution situations are discussed next.
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Distribution of an annuity contract from your IRA account.(p41)

rule
You can tell the trustee or custodian of your traditional IRA account to use the amount in the account to buy an annuity contract for you. You are not taxed when you receive the annuity contract (unless the annuity contract is being converted to an annuity held by a Roth IRA). You are taxed when you start receiving payments under that annuity contract.
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Tax treatment.(p41)
If only deductible contributions were made to your traditional IRA since it was opened (this includes all your traditional IRAs, if you have more than one), the annuity payments are fully taxable.
If any of your traditional IRAs include both deductible and nondeductible contributions, the annuity payments are taxed as explained earlier under Distributions Fully or Partly Taxable.
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Cashing in retirement bonds.(p41)

rule
When you cash in retirement bonds, you are taxed on the entire amount you receive. Unless you have already cashed them in, you will be taxed on the entire value of your bonds in the year in which you reach age 701/2. The value of the bonds is the amount you would have received if you had cashed them in at the end of that year. When you later cash in the bonds, you will not be taxed again.
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Reporting and Withholding Requirements for Taxable Amounts(p41)

rule
If you receive a distribution from your traditional IRA, you will receive Form 1099-R, or a similar statement. IRA distributions are shown in boxes 1 and 2a of Form 1099-R. A number or letter code in box 7 tells you what type of distribution you received from your IRA.
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Number codes.(p41)

rule
Some of the number codes are explained below. All of the codes are explained in the instructions for recipients on Form 1099-R.
EIC
If code 1, 5, or 8 appears on your Form 1099-R, you are probably subject to a penalty or additional tax. If code 1 appears, see Early Distributions, later. If code 5 appears, see Prohibited Transactions, later. If code 8 appears, see Excess Contributions, later.
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Letter codes. (p41)

rule
Some of the letter codes are explained below. All of the codes are explained in the instructions for recipients on Form 1099-R.
If the distribution shown on Form 1099-R is from your IRA, SEP IRA, or SIMPLE IRA, the small box in box 7 (labeled IRA/SEP/SIMPLE) should be marked with an "X."
EIC
If code D, J, P, or S appears on your Form 1099-R, you are probably subject to a penalty or additional tax. If code D appears, see Excess Contributions, later. If code J appears, see Early Distributions, later. If code P appears, see Excess Contributions, later. If code S appears, see Additional Tax on Early Distributions in chapter 3.
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Withholding.(p43)

rule
Federal income tax is withheld from distributions from traditional IRAs unless you choose not to have tax withheld.
The amount of tax withheld from an annuity or a similar periodic payment is based on your marital status and the number of withholding allowances you claim on your withholding certificate (Form W-4P). If you have not filed a certificate, tax will be withheld as if you are a married individual claiming three withholding allowances.
Generally, tax will be withheld at a 10% rate on nonperiodic distributions.
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IRA distributions delivered outside the United States.(p43)
In general, if you are a U.S. citizen or resident alien and your home address is outside the United States or its possessions, you cannot choose exemption from withholding on distributions from your traditional IRA.
To choose exemption from withholding, you must certify to the payer under penalties of perjury that you are not a U.S. citizen, a resident alien of the United States, or a tax-avoidance expatriate.
Even if this election is made, the payer must withhold tax at the rates prescribed for nonresident aliens.
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More information.(p43)
For more information on withholding on pensions and annuities, see Pensions and Annuities in chapter 1 of Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax. For more information on withholding on nonresident aliens and foreign entities, see Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities.
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Reporting taxable distributions on your return.(p43)

rule
Report fully taxable distributions, including early distributions, on Form 1040, line 15b (no entry is required on line 15a); Form 1040A, line 11b (no entry is required on line 11a); or Form 1040NR, line 16b (no entry is required on line 16a). If only part of the distribution is taxable, enter the total amount on Form 1040, line 15a; Form 1040A, line 11a; or Form 1040NR, line 16a, and enter the taxable part on Form 1040, line 15b; Form 1040A, line 11b; or Form 1040NR, line 16b. You cannot report distributions on Form 1040EZ or Form 1040NR-EZ.
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Estate tax.(p44)

rule
Generally, the value of an annuity or other payment receivable by any beneficiary of a decedent's traditional IRA that represents the part of the purchase price contributed by the decedent (or by his or her former employer(s)), must be included in the decedent's gross estate. For more information, see the instructions for Schedule I, Form 706, United States Estate (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return.
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Pencil

Worksheet 1-5. Figuring the Taxable Part of Your IRA Distribution


Use only if you made contributions to a traditional IRA for 2010 that may not be fully deductible and have to figure the taxable part of your 2010 distributions to determine your modified AGI. See Limit if Covered by Employer Plan.
Form 8606 and the related instructions will be needed when using this worksheet.

Note. When used in this worksheet, the term outstanding rollover refers to an amount distributed from a traditional IRA as part of a rollover that, as of December 31, 2010, had not yet been reinvested in another traditional IRA, but was still eligible to be rolled over tax free.

1.Enter the basis in your traditional IRAs as of December 31, 20091.
2.Enter the total of all contributions made to your traditional IRAs during 2010 and all contributions made during 2011 that were for 2010, whether or not deductible. Do not include rollover contributions properly rolled over into IRAs. Also, do not include certain returned contributions described in the instructions for line 7, Part I, of Form 8606. 2.
3.Add lines 1 and 23.
4.Enter the value of all your traditional IRAs as of December 31, 2010 (include any outstanding rollovers from traditional IRAs to other traditional IRAs). 4.
5.Enter the total distributions from traditional IRAs (including amounts converted to Roth IRAs that will be shown on line 16 of Form 8606) received in 2010. (Do not include outstanding rollovers included on line 4 or any rollovers between traditional IRAs completed by December 31, 2010. Also, do not include certain returned contributions described in the instructions for line 7, Part I, of Form 8606.) 5.
6.Add lines 4 and 56.
7.Divide line 3 by line 6. Enter the result as a decimal (rounded to at least three places).
If the result is 1.000 or more, enter 1.000
7.
8.Nontaxable portion of the distribution.
Multiply line 5 by line 7. Enter the result here and on lines 13 and 17 of Form 8606
8.
9.Taxable portion of the distribution (before adjustment for conversions).
Subtract line 8 from line 5. Enter the result here and if there are no amounts converted to Roth IRAs, stop here and enter the result on line 15 of Form 8606
9.
10.Enter the amount included on line 9 that is allocable to amounts converted to Roth IRAs by December 31, 2010. (See Note at the end of this worksheet.) Enter here and on line 18 of Form 8606 10.
11.Taxable portion of the distribution (after adjustments for conversions).
Subtract line 10 from line 9. Enter the result here and on line 15 of Form 8606
11.
Note. If the amount on line 5 of this worksheet includes an amount converted to a Roth IRA by December 31, 2010, you must determine the percentage of the distribution allocable to the conversion. To figure the percentage, divide the amount converted (from line 16 of Form 8606) by the total distributions shown on line 5. To figure the amounts to include on line 10 of this worksheet and on line 18, Part II of Form 8606, multiply line 9 of the worksheet by the percentage you figured.
taxmap/pubs/p590-011.htm#en_us_publink1000230851

Worksheet 1-5. Figuring the Taxable Part of Your IRA Distribution—Illustrated



Use only if you made contributions to a traditional IRA for 2010 that may not be fully deductible and have to figure the taxable part of your 2010 distributions to determine your modified AGI. See Limit if Covered by Employer Plan.
Form 8606 and the related instructions will be needed when using this worksheet.

Note. When used in this worksheet, the term outstanding rollover refers to an amount distributed from a traditional IRA as part of a rollover that, as of December 31, 2010, had not yet been reinvested in another traditional IRA, but was still eligible to be rolled over tax free.

1.Enter the basis in your traditional IRAs as of December 31, 20091.300
2.Enter the total of all contributions made to your traditional IRAs during 2010 and all contributions made during 2011 that were for 2010, whether or not deductible. Do not include rollover contributions properly rolled over into IRAs. Also, do not include certain returned contributions described in the instructions for line 7, Part I, of Form 8606. 2.2,000
3.Add lines 1 and 23.2,300
4.Enter the value of all your traditional IRAs as of December 31, 2010 (include any outstanding rollovers from traditional IRAs to other traditional IRAs) 4.20,000
5.Enter the total distributions from traditional IRAs (including amounts converted to Roth IRAs that will be shown on line 16 of Form 8606) received in 2010. (Do not include outstanding rollovers included on line 4 or any rollovers between traditional IRAs completed by December 31, 2010. Also, do not include certain returned contributions described in the instructions for line 7, Part I, of Form 8606.) 5.5,000
6.Add lines 4 and 56.25,000
7.Divide line 3 by line 6. Enter the result as a decimal (rounded to at least three places).
If the result is 1.000 or more, enter 1.000
7..092
8.Nontaxable portion of the distribution.
Multiply line 5 by line 7. Enter the result here and on lines 13 and 17 of Form 8606
8.460
9.Taxable portion of the distribution (before adjustment for conversions).
Subtract line 8 from line 5. Enter the result here and if there are no amounts converted to Roth IRAs, stop here and enter the result on line 15 of Form 8606
9.4,540
10.Enter the amount included on line 9 that is allocable to amounts converted to Roth IRAs by December 31, 2010. (See Note at the end of this worksheet.) Enter here and on line 18 of Form 8606 10.4,540
11.Taxable portion of the distribution (after adjustments for conversions).
Subtract line 10 from line 9. Enter the result here and on line 15 of Form 8606
11.0
Note. If the amount on line 5 of this worksheet includes an amount converted to a Roth IRA by December 31, 2010, you must determine the percentage of the distribution allocable to the conversion. To figure the percentage, divide the amount converted (from line 16 of Form 8606) by the total distributions shown on line 5. To figure the amounts to include on line 10 of this worksheet and on line 18, Part II of Form 8606, multiply line 9 of the worksheet by the percentage you figured.
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