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IRS.gov Website
Publication 516
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022655

Foreign Income(p3)

rule
If you are a U.S. citizen or resident alien with income from sources outside the United States, you must report all that income on your tax return unless it is exempt by U.S. law. This applies to earned income (such as wages) as well as unearned income (such as interest, dividends, and capital gains).
EIC
If you are a U.S. citizen or resident alien, you must report your pay from the U.S. Government on your U.S. return, even if you are working in a foreign country with which the U.S. has an income tax treaty in force.
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022656

Foreign earned income exclusion and foreign housing exclusion and deduction.(p3)

rule
Certain taxpayers can exclude or deduct income earned in foreign countries. However, the foreign earned income and housing exclusions and the foreign housing deduction do not apply to the income you receive as an employee of the U.S. Government.
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022657
U.S. agency reimbursed by foreign country.(p3)
If you are a U.S. Government employee paid by a U.S. agency to perform services in a foreign country, your pay is from the U.S. Government and does not qualify for the exclusions or the deduction. This is true even if the U.S. agency is reimbursed by the foreign government.
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022658
Employees of post exchanges, etc.(p3)
If you are an employee of an Armed Forces post exchange, officers' and enlisted personnel club, Embassy commissary, or similar instrumentality of the U.S. Government, the earnings you receive are paid by the U.S. Government. This is true whether they are paid from appropriated or nonappropriated funds. These earnings are not eligible for the foreign earned income and housing exclusions or the foreign housing deduction.
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022659
Other employment.(p3)
If you are a U.S. citizen or resident employed abroad by the U.S. Government and you also receive income from a private employer or self-employment, you may qualify to claim the exclusions or the deduction based on this other income. To qualify, you must meet either the bona fide residence test or the physical presence test. Your spouse who is a U.S. citizen or resident alien may also qualify if he or she earns income in a foreign country that is paid by a private employer or is from self-employment. If you are not a U.S. Government employee, amounts paid by the United States or its agencies to you may qualify for the exclusions or the deduction.
taxmap/pubs/p516-001.htm#en_us_publink100022660
Additional information.(p3)
For more information on the foreign earned income and housing exclusions and foreign housing deduction, see Publication 54.