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IRS.gov Website
Publication 970
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178518

Chapter 8
Qualified Tuition Program (QTP)(p55)

taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#TXMP69a648e5Introduction

Qualified tuition programs (QTPs) are also called "529 plans."
States may establish and maintain programs that allow you to either prepay or contribute to an account for paying a student's qualified education expenses at a postsecondary institution. Eligible educational institutions may establish and maintain programs that allow you to prepay a student's qualified education expenses. If you prepay tuition, the student (designated beneficiary) will be entitled to a waiver or a payment of qualified education expenses. You cannot deduct either payments or contributions to a QTP. For information on a specific QTP, you will need to contact the state agency or eligible educational institution that established and maintains it.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178521

What is the tax benefit of a QTP.(p55)

rule
No tax is due on a distribution from a QTP unless the amount distributed is greater than the beneficiary's adjusted qualified education expenses. See Are Distributions Taxable, later, for more information.
Deposit
Even if a QTP is used to finance a student's education, the student or the student's parents still may be eligible to claim the American opportunity credit or the lifetime learning credit. See Coordination With American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning Credits, later.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178525

What Is a Qualified
Tuition Program(p55)

rule
A qualified tuition program is a program set up to allow you to either prepay, or contribute to an account established for paying, a student's qualified education expenses at an eligible educational institution. QTPs can be established and maintained by states (or agencies or instrumentalities of a state) and eligible educational institutions. The program must meet certain requirements. Your state government or the eligible educational institution in which you are interested can tell you whether or not they participate in a QTP.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178526

Qualified education expenses.(p55)

rule
These are expenses related to enrollment or attendance at an Eligible educational institution (defined later). As shown in the following list, to be qualified, some of the expenses must be required by the institution and some must be incurred by students who are enrolled at least half-time. See Half-time student, later.
  1. The following expenses must be required for enrollment or attendance of a Designated beneficiary (defined later) at an eligible educational institution.
    1. Tuition and fees.
    2. Books, supplies, and equipment.
  2. Expenses for special needs services needed by a special needs beneficiary must be incurred in connection with enrollment or attendance at an eligible educational institution.
  3. Expenses for room and board must be incurred by students who are enrolled at least half-time. The expense for room and board qualifies only to the extent that it is not more than the greater of the following two amounts.
    1. The allowance for room and board, as determined by the eligible educational institution, that was included in the cost of attendance (for federal financial aid purposes) for a particular academic period and living arrangement of the student.
    2. The actual amount charged if the student is residing in housing owned or operated by the eligible educational institution.
You will need to contact the eligible educational institution for qualified room and board costs.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178528
Designated beneficiary.(p55)
The designated beneficiary is generally the student (or future student) for whom the QTP is intended to provide benefits. The designated beneficiary can be changed after participation in the QTP begins. If a state or local government or certain tax-exempt organizations purchase an interest in a QTP as part of a scholarship program, the designated beneficiary is the person who receives the interest as a scholarship.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000240694
Half-time student.(p55)
A student is enrolled "at least half-time" if he or she is enrolled for at least half the full-time academic workload for the course of study the student is pursuing, as determined under the standards of the school where the student is enrolled.
taxmap/pubs/p970-037.htm#en_us_publink1000178529

Eligible educational institution.(p55)

rule
For purposes of a QTP, this is any college, university, vocational school, or other postsecondary educational institution eligible to participate in a student aid program administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes virtually all accredited public, nonprofit, and proprietary (privately owned profit-making) postsecondary institutions. The educational institution should be able to tell you if it is an eligible educational institution.
Certain educational institutions located outside the United States also participate in the U.S. Department of Education's Federal Student Aid (FSA) programs.