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IRS.gov Website
Publication 535
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243138

When To
Deduct Interest(p14)

rule
If the uniform capitalization rules, discussed under Capitalization of Interest, earlier, do not apply to you, deduct interest as follows.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243139

Cash method.(p14)

rule
Under the cash method, you can generally deduct only the interest you actually paid during the tax year. You cannot deduct a promissory note you gave as payment because it is a promise to pay and not an actual payment.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243140
Prepaid interest.(p14)
You generally cannot deduct any interest paid before the year it is due. Interest paid in advance can be deducted only in the tax year in which it is due.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243141
Discounted loan.(p14)
If interest or a discount is subtracted from your loan proceeds, it is not a payment of interest and you cannot deduct it when you get the loan. For more information, see Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243142
Refunds of interest.(p14)
If you pay interest and then receive a refund in the same tax year of any part of the interest, reduce your interest deduction by the refund. If you receive the refund in a later tax year, include the refund in your income to the extent the deduction for the interest reduced your tax.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243143

Accrual method.(p14)

rule
Under an accrual method, you can deduct only interest that has accrued during the tax year.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243144
Prepaid interest.(p14)
See Prepaid interest, above.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243145
Discounted loan.(p14)
See Discounted loan, above.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243146
Tax deficiency.(p14)
If you contest a federal income tax deficiency, interest does not accrue until the tax year the final determination of liability is made. If you do not contest the deficiency, then the interest accrues in the year the tax was asserted and agreed to by you.
However, if you contest but pay the proposed tax deficiency and interest, and you do not designate the payment as a cash bond, then the interest is deductible in the year paid.
taxmap/pubs/p535-016.htm#en_us_publink1000243147
Related person.(p14)
If you use an accrual method, you cannot deduct interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method until payment is made and the interest is includible in the gross income of that person. The relationship is determined as of the end of the tax year for which the interest would otherwise be deductible. See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code for more information.