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IRS.gov Website
Publication 570
taxmap/pubs/p570-007.htm#en_us_publink1000221241

Effectively Connected Income(p10)

rule
In limited circumstances, some kinds of income from sources outside the relevant possession must be treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in that possession. These circumstances are listed below.
An office or other fixed place of business is a material factor if it significantly contributes to, and is an essential economic element in, the earning of the income.
The three kinds of income from sources outside the relevant possession to which these rules apply are the following.
  1. Rents and royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, intangible personal property located outside the relevant possession or from any interest in such property. Included are rents or royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, outside the relevant possession, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and similar properties if the rents or royalties are from the active conduct of a trade or business in the relevant possession.
  2. Dividends or interest from the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business in the relevant possession.
  3. Income, gain, or loss from the sale or exchange outside the relevant possession, through the office or other fixed place of business in the relevant possession, of:
    1. Stock in trade,
    2. Property that would be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year, or
    3. Property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business.
Item (3) will not apply if you sold the property for use, consumption, or disposition outside the relevant possession and an office or other fixed place of business in a foreign country was a material factor in the sale.
taxmap/pubs/p570-007.htm#en_us_publink1000221242

Example.(p10)

Marcy Jackson is a bona fide resident of American Samoa. Her business, which she conducts from an office in American Samoa, is developing and selling specialized computer software. A software purchaser will frequently pay Marcy an additional amount to install the software on the purchaser's operating system and to ensure that the software is functioning properly. Marcy installs the software at the purchaser's place of business, which may be in American Samoa, in the United States, or in another country. The income from selling the software is effectively connected with the conduct of Marcy's business in American Samoa, even though the product's destination may be outside the possession. However, the compensation she receives for installing the software (personal services) outside of American Samoa is not effectively connected with the conduct of her business in the possession—the income is sourced where she performs the services.