skip navigation

Search Help
Navigation Help

Topic Index
ABCDEFGHI
JKLMNOPQR
STUVWXYZ#

Affordable Care Act
Tax Topic Index

International
Tax Topic Index

FAQs
Forms
Publications
Tax Topics

Comments
About Tax Map

IRS.gov Website
Publication 590
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230720

When Must You Withdraw
Assets? (Required Minimum Distributions)(p34)

rule
You cannot keep funds in a traditional IRA indefinitely. Eventually they must be distributed. If there are no distributions, or if the distributions are not large enough, you may have to pay a 50% excise tax on the amount not distributed as required. See Excess Accumulations (Insufficient Distributions), later under What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes. The requirements for distributing IRA funds differ, depending on whether you are the IRA owner or the beneficiary of a decedent's IRA.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230722

Required minimum distribution.(p34)

rule
The amount that must be distributed each year is referred to as the required minimum distribution.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230723

Distributions not eligible for rollover.(p34)

rule
Amounts that must be distributed (required minimum distributions) during a particular year are not eligible for rollover treatment.
Note. A qualified charitable distribution will count towards your required minimum distribution. See Qualified charitable distributions under Are Distributions Taxable, later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230725

IRA Owners(p34)

rule
If you are the owner of a traditional IRA, you must generally start receiving distributions from your IRA by April 1 of the year following the year in which you reach age 701/2. April 1 of the year following the year in which you reach age 701/2 is referred to as the required beginning date.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230726

Distributions by the required beginning date.(p34)

rule
You must receive at least a minimum amount for each year starting with the year you reach age 701/2 (your 701/2 year). If you do not (or did not) receive that minimum amount in your 701/2 year, then you must receive distributions for your 701/2 year by April 1 of the next year.
If an IRA owner dies after reaching age 701/2, but before April 1 of the next year, no minimum distribution is required because death occurred before the required beginning date.
EIC
Even if you begin receiving distributions before you reach age 701/2, you must begin calculating and receiving required minimum distributions by your required beginning date.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230728
More than minimum received.(p34)
If, in any year, you receive more than the required minimum distribution for that year, you will not receive credit for the additional amount when determining the minimum required distributions for future years. This does not mean that you do not reduce your IRA account balance. It means that if you receive more than your required minimum distribution in one year, you cannot treat the excess (the amount that is more than the required minimum distribution) as part of your required minimum distribution for any later year. However, any amount distributed in your 701/2 year will be credited toward the amount that must be distributed by April 1 of the following year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230729

Distributions after the required beginning date.(p35)

rule
The required minimum distribution for any year after the year you turn 701/2 must be made by December 31 of that later year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230730

Example.(p35)

You reach age 701/2 on August 20, 2013. For 2013, you must receive the required minimum distribution from your IRA by April 1, 2014. You must receive the required minimum distribution for 2014 by December 31, 2014.
EIC
If you do not receive your required minimum distribution for 2013 until 2014, both your 2013 and your 2014 distributions will be included in income on your 2014 return.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230731

Distributions from individual retirement account.(p35)

rule
If you are the owner of a traditional IRA that is an individual retirement account, you or your trustee must figure the required minimum distribution for each year. See Figuring the Owner's Required Minimum Distribution below.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230733

Distributions from individual retirement annuities.(p35)

rule
If your traditional IRA is an individual retirement annuity, special rules apply to figuring the required minimum distribution. For more information on rules for annuities, see Regulations section 1.401(a)(9)-6. These regulations can be read in many libraries, IRS offices, and online at IRS.gov.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230734

Change in marital status.(p35)

rule
For purposes of figuring your required minimum distribution, your marital status is determined as of January 1 of each year. If your spouse is a beneficiary of your IRA on January 1, he or she remains a beneficiary for the entire year even if you get divorced or your spouse dies during the year. For purposes of determining your distribution period, a change in beneficiary is effective in the year following the year of death or divorce.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230735
Change of beneficiary.(p35)
If your spouse is the sole beneficiary of your IRA, and he or she dies before you, your spouse will not fail to be your sole beneficiary for the year that he or she died solely because someone other than your spouse is named a beneficiary for the rest of that year. However, if you get divorced during the year and change the beneficiary designation on the IRA during that same year, your former spouse will not be treated as the sole beneficiary for that year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230736

Figuring the Owner's Required Minimum Distribution(p35)

rule
Figure your required minimum distribution for each year by dividing the IRA account balance (defined next) as of the close of business on December 31 of the preceding year by the applicable distribution period or life expectancy. Tables showing distribution periods and life expectancies are found in Appendix C and are discussed later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230737

IRA account balance.(p35)

rule
The IRA account balance is the amount in the IRA at the end of the year preceding the year for which the required minimum distribution is being figured.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230738
Contributions.(p35)
Contributions increase the account balance in the year they are made. If a contribution for last year is not made until after December 31 of last year, it increases the account balance for this year, but not for last year. Disregard contributions made after December 31 of last year in determining your required minimum distribution for this year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230739
Outstanding rollovers and recharacterizations.(p35)
The IRA account balance is adjusted by outstanding rollovers and recharacterizations of Roth IRA conversions that are not in any account at the end of the preceding year.
For a rollover from a qualified plan or another IRA that was not in any account at the end of the preceding year, increase the account balance of the receiving IRA by the rollover amount valued as of the date of receipt.
If a conversion contribution is contributed to a Roth IRA and that amount (plus net income allocable to it) is transferred to another IRA in a subsequent year as a recharacterized contribution, increase the account balance of the receiving IRA by the recharacterized contribution (plus allocable net income) for the year in which the conversion occurred.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230740
Distributions.(p35)
Distributions reduce the account balance in the year they are made. A distribution for last year made after December 31 of last year reduces the account balance for this year, but not for last year. Disregard distributions made after December 31 of last year in determining your required minimum distribution for this year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230741

Example 1.(p35)

Laura was born on October 1, 1942. She reaches age 701/2 in 2013. Her required beginning date is April 1, 2014. As of December 31, 2012, her IRA account balance was $26,500. No rollover or recharacterization amounts were outstanding. Using Table III in Appendix C, the applicable distribution period for someone her age (71) is 26.5 years. Her required minimum distribution for 2013 is $1,000 ($26,500 ÷ 26.5). That amount is distributed to her on April 1, 2014.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230742

Example 2.(p35)

Joe, born October 1, 1942, reached 701/2 in 2013. His wife (his beneficiary) turned 56 in September 2013. He must begin receiving distributions by April 1, 2014. Joe's IRA account balance as of December 31, 2012, is $30,100. Because Joe's wife is more than 10 years younger than Joe and is the sole beneficiary of his IRA, Joe uses Table II in Appendix C. Based on their ages at year end (December 31, 2013), the joint life expectancy for Joe (age 71) and his wife (age 56) is 30.1 years. The required minimum distribution for 2013, Joe's first distribution year, is $1,000 ($30,100 ÷ 30.1). This amount is distributed to Joe on April 1, 2014.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230743

Distribution period.(p35)

rule
This is the maximum number of years over which you are allowed to take distributions from the IRA. The period to use for 2013 is listed next to your age as of your birthday in 2013 in Table III in Appendix C.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230744

Life expectancy.(p36)

rule
If you must use Table I, your life expectancy for 2014 is listed in the table next to your age as of your birthday in 2014. If you use Table II, your life expectancy is listed where the row or column containing your age as of your birthday in 2014 intersects with the row or column containing your spouse's age as of his or her birthday in 2014. Both Table I and Table II are in Appendix C.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230745

Distributions during your lifetime.(p36)

rule
Required minimum distributions during your lifetime are based on a distribution period that generally is determined using Table III (Uniform Lifetime) in Appendix C. However, if the sole beneficiary of your IRA is your spouse who is more than 10 years younger than you, see Sole beneficiary spouse who is more than 10 years younger below.
To figure the required minimum distribution for 2014, divide your account balance at the end of 2013 by the distribution period from the table. This is the distribution period listed next to your age (as of your birthday in 2014) in Table III in Appendix C, unless the sole beneficiary of your IRA is your spouse who is more than 10 years younger than you.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230747

Example.(p36)

You own a traditional IRA. Your account balance at the end of 2013 was $100,000. You are married and your spouse, who is the sole beneficiary of your IRA, is 6 years younger than you. You turn 75 years old in 2014. You use Table III. Your distribution period is 22.9. Your required minimum distribution for 2014 would be $4,367 ($100,000 ÷ 22.9).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230748
Sole beneficiary spouse who is more than 10 years younger.(p36)
If the sole beneficiary of your IRA is your spouse and your spouse is more than 10 years younger than you, use the life expectancy from Table II (Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy) in Appendix C.
The life expectancy to use is the joint life and last survivor expectancy listed where the row or column containing your age as of your birthday in 2014 intersects with the row or column containing your spouse's age as of his or her birthday in 2014.
You figure your required minimum distribution for 2014 by dividing your account balance at the end of 2013 by the life expectancy from Table II (Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy) in Appendix C.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230749

Example.(p36)

You own a traditional IRA. Your account balance at the end of 2013 was $100,000. You are married and your spouse, who is the sole beneficiary of your IRA, is 11 years younger than you. You turn 75 in 2014 and your spouse turns 64. You use Table II. Your joint life and last survivor expectancy is 23.6. Your required minimum distribution for 2014 would be $4,237 ($100,000 ÷ 23.6).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230750

Distributions in the year of the owner's death.(p36)

rule
The required minimum distribution for the year of the owner's death depends on whether the owner died before the required beginning date, defined earlier.
If the owner died before the required beginning date, there is no required minimum distribution in the year of the owner's death. For years after the year of the owner's death, see Owner Died Before Required Beginning Date, later, under IRA Beneficiaries.
If the owner died on or after the required beginning date, the IRA beneficiaries are responsible for figuring and distributing the owner's required minimum distribution in the year of death. The owner's required minimum distribution for the year of death generally is based on Table III (Uniform Lifetime) in Appendix C. However, if the sole beneficiary of the IRA is the owner's spouse who is more than 10 years younger than the owner, use the life expectancy from Table II (Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy).
Note.You figure the required minimum distribution for the year in which an IRA owner dies as if the owner lived for the entire year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230753

IRA Beneficiaries(p36)

rule
The rules for determining required minimum distributions for beneficiaries depend on the following.
The following paragraphs explain the rules for required minimum distributions and beneficiaries.
EIC
If distributions to the beneficiary from an inherited traditional IRA are less than the required minimum distribution for the year, discussed in this chapter under When Must You Withdraw Assets? (Required Minimum Distributions), you may have to pay a 50% excise tax for that year on the amount not distributed as required. For details, see Excess Accumulations (Insufficient Distributions) under What Acts Result in Penalties or Additional Taxes? later in this chapter.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230756

Surviving spouse.(p36)

rule
If you are the surviving spouse who is the sole beneficiary of your deceased spouse's IRA, you may elect to be treated as the owner and not as the beneficiary. If you elect to be treated as the owner, you determine the required minimum distribution (if any) as if you were the owner beginning with the year you elect or are deemed to be the owner. For details, see Inherited from spouse under What if You Inherit an IRA, earlier in this chapter.
Note.If you become the owner in the year your deceased spouse died, do not determine the required minimum distribution for that year using your life; rather, you must take the deceased owner's required minimum distribution for that year (to the extent it was not already distributed to the owner before his or her death).
EIC
You can never make a rollover contribution of a required minimum distribution. Any rollover contribution is subject to the 6% tax on excess contributions, as discussed in Rollover of required distributions not allowed, earlier.
Tax Tip
For any year after the owner’s death, where a surviving spouse is the sole designated beneficiary of the account and he or she fails to take a required minimum distribution (if one is required) by December 31 under the rules discussed below for beneficiaries, he or she will be deemed the owner of the IRA. For details, see Inherited from spouse under What if You Inherit an IRA, earlier in this chapter.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230762

Date the designated beneficiary is determined.(p37)

rule
Generally, the designated beneficiary is determined on September 30 of the calendar year following the calendar year of the IRA owner's death. In order to be a designated beneficiary, an individual must be a beneficiary as of the date of death. Any person who was a beneficiary on the date of the owner's death, but is not a beneficiary on September 30 of the calendar year following the calendar year of the owner's death (because, for example, he or she disclaimed entitlement or received his or her entire benefit), will not be taken into account in determining the designated beneficiary. An individual may be designated as a beneficiary either by the terms of the plan or, if the plan permits, by affirmative election by the employee specifying the beneficiary.
Note.If a person who is a beneficiary as of the owner's date of death dies before September 30 of the year following the year of the owner's death without disclaiming entitlement to benefits, that individual, rather than his or her successor beneficiary, continues to be treated as a beneficiary for determining the distribution period.
For the exception to this rule, see Death of surviving spouse prior to date distributions begin, later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230763

Death of a beneficiary.(p37)

rule
In general, the beneficiaries of a deceased beneficiary must continue to take the required minimum distributions after the deceased beneficiary’s death, based on the distribution schedule established by that beneficiary under the rules in the following paragraphs. The beneficiaries of a deceased beneficiary do not calculate required minimum distributions using their own life expectancies.
For the exception to this rule, see Death of surviving spouse prior to date distributions begin, later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230765

More than one beneficiary.(p37)

rule
If an IRA has more than one beneficiary or a trust is named as beneficiary, see Miscellaneous Rules for Required Minimum Distributions, later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230758

Owner Died On or After Required Beginning Date(p37)

rule
If the owner died on or after his or her required beginning date (defined earlier), and you are the designated beneficiary, you must base required minimum distributions for years after the year of the owner's death on the longer of:
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002900

Surviving spouse is sole designated beneficiary.(p37)

rule
If the owner died on or after his or her required beginning date and his or her spouse is the sole designated beneficiary, the life expectancy the spouse must use to figure his or her required minimum distribution may change in a future distribution year. This change will apply where the spouse is older than the deceased owner or the spouse treats the IRA as his or her own.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230760

Owner Died Before Required Beginning Date(p37)

rule
If the owner died before his or her required beginning date (defined earlier), and you are the designated beneficiary, you generally must base required minimum distributions for years after the year of the owner's death using your single life expectancy shown on Table I in Appendix C as determined under Beneficiary an individual, later.
See 5-year rule, later, for situations where an individual designated beneficiary may be required to take the entire account by the end of the fifth year following the year of the owner's death.
If the owner's beneficiary is not an individual (for example, if the beneficiary is the owner's estate), the 5-year rule (discussed later) applies.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002902

Special rules for surviving spouse.(p37)

rule
If the owner died before his or her required beginning date and the surviving spouse is the sole designated beneficiary, the following rules apply.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002903
Year of first required distribution.(p37)
If the owner died before the year in which he or she reached age 701/2, distributions to the spouse do not need to begin until the year in which the owner would have reached age 701/2.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002904
Death of surviving spouse prior to date distributions begin.(p37)
If the surviving spouse dies before December 31 of the year he or she must begin receiving required minimum distributions, the surviving spouse will be treated as if he or she were the owner of the IRA.
This rule does not apply to the surviving spouse of a surviving spouse.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002905

Example 1.(p37)

Your spouse died in 2011, at age 651/2. You are the sole designated beneficiary of your spouse’s traditional IRA. You do not need to take any required minimum distribution until December 31 of 2016, the year your spouse would have reached age 701/2. If you die prior to that date, you will be treated as the owner of the IRA for purposes of determining the required distributions to your beneficiaries. For example, if you die in 2013, your beneficiaries will not have any required minimum distribution for 2013 (because you, treated as the owner, died prior to your required beginning date). They must start taking distributions under the general rules for an owner who died prior to the required beginning date.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002906

Example 2.(p38)

Same as Example 1, except your sole beneficiary upon your death in 2013 is your surviving spouse. Your surviving spouse cannot wait until the year you would have turned 701/2 to take distributions using his or her life expectancy. Also, if your surviving spouse dies prior to the date he or she is required to take a distribution, he or she is not treated as the owner of the account. Just like any other individual beneficiary of an owner who dies before the required beginning date, your surviving spouse must start taking distributions in 2014 based on his or her life expectancy (or elect to fully distribute the account under the 5-year rule by the end of 2018).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002908

5-year rule.(p38)

rule
The 5-year rule requires the IRA beneficiaries to withdraw 100% of the IRA by December 31 of the year containing the fifth anniversary of the owner’s death. For example, if the owner died in 2013, the beneficiary would have to fully distribute the plan by December 31, 2018. The beneficiary is allowed, but not required, to take distributions prior to that date. The 5-year rule never applies if the owner died on or after his or her required beginning date.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10004522
Individual designated beneficiaries.(p38)
The terms of most IRA plans require individual designated beneficiaries to take required minimum distributions using the life expectancy rules (explained earlier) unless such beneficiaries elect to take distributions using the 5-year rule. The deadline for making this election is December 31 of the year the beneficiary must take the first required distribution using his or her life expectancy (or December 31 of the year containing the fifth anniversary of the owner's death, if earlier).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002910
Beneficiary not an individual.(p38)
The 5-year rule applies in all cases where there is no individual designated beneficiary by September 30 of the year following the year of the owner’s death or where any beneficiary is not an individual (for example, the owner named his or her estate as the beneficiary).
Tax Tip
Review the IRA plan documents or consult with the IRA custodian or trustee for specifics on the 5-year rule provisions of any particular plan.
EIC
If the 5-year rule applies, the amount remaining in the IRA, if any, after December 31 of the year containing the fifth anniversary of the owner's death is subject to the 50% excise tax detailed in Excess Accumulations (Insufficient Distributions), later.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230767

Figuring the Beneficiary's Required Minimum Distribution(p38)

rule
How you figure the required minimum distribution depends on whether the beneficiary is an individual or some other entity, such as a trust or estate.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230768

Beneficiary an individual.(p38)

rule
If the beneficiary is an individual, to figure the required minimum distribution for 2014, divide the account balance at the end of 2013 by the appropriate life expectancy from Table I (Single Life Expectancy) in Appendix C. Determine the appropriate life expectancy as follows.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002914
Spouse as sole designated beneficiary.(p38)
Use the life expectancy listed in the table next to the spouse's age (as of the spouse's birthday in 2014). Use this life expectancy even if the spouse died in 2014.
If the spouse died in 2013 or a prior year, use the life expectancy listed in the table next to the spouse’s age as of his or her birthday in the year he or she died. Reduce the life expectancy by one for each year since the year following the spouse’s death.
EIC
You cannot make a rollover contribution of your required minimum distributions in years after the owner's death. Such contribution is subject to the 6% tax on excess contributions, as discussed in Rollover of required distributions not allowed, earlier.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002916
Other designated beneficiary.(p38)
Use the life expectancy listed in the table next to the beneficiary's age as of his or her birthday in the year following the year of the owner's death. Reduce the life expectancy by one for each year since the year following the owner's death. As discussed in Death of a beneficiary, earlier, if the designated beneficiary dies before his or her portion of the account is fully distributed, continue to use the designated beneficiary's remaining life expectancy to determine the distribution period; do not use the life expectancy of any subsequent beneficiary.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230769

Example.(p38)

Your father died in 2013. You are the designated beneficiary of your father's traditional IRA. You are 53 years old in 2014, which is the year following your father's death. You use Table I and see that your life expectancy in 2014 is 31.4. If the IRA was worth $100,000 at the end of 2013, your required minimum distribution for 2014 would be $3,185 ($100,000 ÷ 31.4). If the value of the IRA at the end of 2014 was again $100,000, your required minimum distribution for 2015 would be $3,289 ($100,000 ÷ 30.4 (31.4 reduced by 1, which is the number of years following the year after your father's death in 2013)).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230770

Beneficiary not an individual.(p38)

rule
If the beneficiary is not an individual, determine the required minimum distribution for 2014 as follows.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002917
Death on or after required beginning date.(p38)
Divide the account balance at the end of 2013 by the appropriate life expectancy from Table I (Single Life Expectancy) in Appendix C. Use the life expectancy listed next to the owner's age as of his or her birthday in the year of death. Reduce the life expectancy by one for each year after the year of death. (Note. Also figure the required minimum distribution for an individual beneficiary using this method if it results in a longer life expectancy where the owner died on or after the required beginning date.)
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002918
Death before required beginning date.(p39)
The 5-year rule (discussed earlier) applies. The entire account must be distributed by the end of the fifth year following the year of the owner's death. No distribution is required for any year before that fifth year.
Note.The required beginning date was defined earlier under Distributions by the required beginning date.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230771

Example.(p39)

The owner died in 2013 at the age of 80. The owner's traditional IRA went to his estate. The account balance at the end of 2013 was $100,000. In 2014, the required minimum distribution would be $10,870 ($100,000 ÷ 9.2). (The owner's life expectancy in the year of death, 10.2, reduced by one.) If the owner had died in 2013 at the age of 70, the entire account would have to be distributed by the end of 2018. See Death before required beginning date under Beneficiary not an individual above.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230772

Which Table Do You Use
To Determine Your
Required Minimum Distribution?(p39)

rule
There are three different life expectancy tables. The tables are found in Appendix C of this publication. You use only one of them to determine your required minimum distribution for each traditional IRA. Determine which one to use as follows.
Reminder.In using the tables for lifetime distributions, marital status is determined as of January 1 each year. Divorce or death after January 1 is generally disregarded until the next year. However, if you divorce and change the beneficiary designation in the same year, your former spouse cannot be considered your sole beneficiary for that year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230775

Table I (Single Life Expectancy).(p39)

rule
Use Table I for years after the year of the owner's death if either of the following applies.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230776
Surviving spouse.(p39)
If you are the owner's surviving spouse and sole designated beneficiary, you will also use Table I for your required minimum distributions. However, if the owner had not reached age 701/2 when he or she died, and you do not elect to be treated as the owner of the IRA, you do not have to take distributions until the year in which the owner would have reached age 701/2.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230777

Table II (Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy).(p39)

rule
Use Table II if you are the IRA owner and your spouse is both your sole designated beneficiary and more than 10 years younger than you.
Note.Use this table in the year of the owner's death if the owner died after the required beginning date and this is the table that would have been used had he or she not died.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230779

Table III (Uniform Lifetime).(p39)

rule
Use Table III if you are the IRA owner and your spouse is not both the sole designated beneficiary of your IRA and more than 10 years younger than you.
Note.Use this table in the year of the owner's death if the owner died after the required beginning date and this is the table that would have been used had he or she not died.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230781

No table.(p39)

rule
Do not use any of the tables if the 5-year rule (discussed earlier) applies.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230783

What Age(s) Do You Use With the Table(s)?(p39)

rule
The age or ages to use with each table are explained below.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230784

Table I (Single Life Expectancy).(p39)

rule
If you are a designated beneficiary figuring your first distribution, use your age as of your birthday in the year distributions must begin. This is usually the calendar year immediately following the calendar year of the owner's death. After the first distribution year, reduce your life expectancy by one for each subsequent year. If you are the owner's surviving spouse and the sole designated beneficiary, this is generally the year in which the owner would have reached age 701/2. After the first distribution year, use your age as of your birthday in each subsequent year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230785

Example 1.(p39)

You are the owner's designated beneficiary figuring your first required minimum distribution. Distributions must begin in 2014. You become 57 years old in 2014. You use Table I. Your distribution period for 2015 is 26.9 (27.9 − 1) years. Your distribution period for 2016 is 25.9 (27.9 − 2). Note that the life expectancy was reduced by one for each year after the first distribution year, which was 2014.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230786

Example 2.(p39)

You are the owner's surviving spouse and the sole designated beneficiary. The owner would have turned age 701/2 in 2014. Distributions begin in 2014. You become 69 years old in 2014. You use Table 1. Your distribution period for 2014 is 17.8. For 2015, when you are 70 years old, your distribution period is 17.0. For 2016, when you are 71 years old, your distribution period is 16.3.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230787
Owner's life expectancy.(p39)
In two cases where the owner dies on or after the required beginning date, you need to use the owner's life expectancy. First, you need to use it when the owner dies on or after the required beginning date and there is no designated beneficiary as of September 30 of the year following the year of the owner's death. In this case, use the owner's life expectancy for his or her age as of the owner's birthday in the year of death and reduce it by one for each subsequent year. Second, use the owner’s life expectancy in the year of death (reduced by one for each subsequent year) if it results in a longer distribution period than using your life expectancy as detailed in Table I (Single Life Expectancy) above.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230788

Table II (Joint Life and Last Survivor Expectancy).(p40)

rule
For your first distribution by the required beginning date, use your age and the age of your designated beneficiary as of your birthdays in the year you become age 701/2. Your combined life expectancy is at the intersection of your ages.
If you are figuring your required minimum distribution for 2014, use your ages as of your birthdays in 2014. For each subsequent year, use your and your spouse's ages as of your birthdays in the subsequent year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230789

Table III (Uniform Lifetime).(p40)

rule
For your first distribution by your required beginning date, use your age as of your birthday in the year you become age 701/2.
If you are figuring your required minimum distribution for 2014, use your age as of your birthday in 2014. For each subsequent year, use your age as of your birthday in the subsequent year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230790

Miscellaneous Rules for
Required Minimum Distributions(p40)

rule
The following rules may apply to you.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230791

Installments allowed.(p40)

rule
The yearly required minimum distribution can be taken in a series of installments (monthly, quarterly, etc.) as long as the total distributions for the year are at least as much as the minimum required amount.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230792

More than one IRA.(p40)

rule
If you have more than one traditional IRA, you must determine a separate required minimum distribution for each IRA. However, you can total these minimum amounts and take the total from any one or more of the IRAs.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230793

Example.(p40)

Sara, born August 1, 1942, became 701/2 on February 1, 2013. She has two traditional IRAs. She must begin receiving her IRA distributions by April 1, 2014. On December 31, 2012, Sara's account balance from IRA A was $10,000; her account balance from IRA B was $20,000. Sara's brother, age 64 as of his birthday in 2013, is the beneficiary of IRA A. Her husband, age 78 as of his birthday in 2013, is the beneficiary of IRA B.
Sara's required minimum distribution from IRA A is $377 ($10,000 ÷ 26.5 (the distribution period for age 71 per Table III)). The amount of the required minimum distribution from IRA B is $755 ($20,000 ÷ 26.5). The amount that must be withdrawn by Sara from her IRA accounts by April 1, 2014, is $1,132 ($377 + $755).
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230794

More than minimum received.(p40)

rule
If, in any year, you receive more than the required minimum amount for that year, you will not receive credit for the additional amount when determining the minimum required amounts for future years. This does not mean that you do not reduce your IRA account balance. It means that if you receive more than your required minimum distribution in one year, you cannot treat the excess (the amount that is more than the required minimum distribution) as part of your required minimum distribution for any later year. However, any amount distributed in your 701/2 year will be credited toward the amount that must be distributed by April 1 of the following year.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000248453

Example.(p40)

Justin became 701/2 on December 15, 2013. Justin's IRA account balance on December 31, 2012, was $38,400. He figured his required minimum distribution for 2013 was $1,401 ($38,400 ÷ 27.4 (the distribution period for age 70 per Table III)). By December 31, 2013, he had actually received distributions totaling $3,600, $2,199 more than was required. Justin cannot use that $2,199 to reduce the amount he is required to withdraw for 2014, but his IRA account balance is reduced by the full $3,600 to figure his required minimum distribution for 2014. Justin's reduced IRA account balance on December 31, 2013, was $34,800. Justin figured his required minimum distribution for 2014 is $1,313 ($34,800 ÷ 26.5 (the distribution period for age 71 per Table III)). During 2014, he must receive distributions of at least that amount.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230795

Multiple individual beneficiaries.(p40)

rule
If as of September 30 of the year following the year in which the owner dies there is more than one beneficiary, the beneficiary with the shortest life expectancy will be the designated beneficiary if both of the following apply.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230796
Separate accounts.(p40)
A single IRA can be split into separate accounts or shares for each beneficiary. These separate accounts or shares can be established at any time, either before or after the owner's required beginning date. Generally, these separate accounts or shares are combined for purposes of determining the minimum required distribution. However, these separate accounts or shares will not be combined for required minimum distribution purposes after the death of the IRA owner if the separate accounts or shares are established by the end of the year following the year of the IRA owner's death.
The separate account rules cannot be used by beneficiaries of a trust.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230797

Trust as beneficiary.(p40)

rule
A trust cannot be a designated beneficiary even if it is a named beneficiary. However, the beneficiaries of a trust will be treated as having been designated beneficiaries for purposes of determining required minimum distributions after the owner’s death (or after the death of the owner’s surviving spouse described in Death of surviving spouse prior to date distributions begin, earlier) if all of the following are true:
  1. The trust is a valid trust under state law, or would be but for the fact that there is no corpus.
  2. The trust is irrevocable or became, by its terms, irrevocable upon the owner's death.
  3. The beneficiaries of the trust who are beneficiaries with respect to the trust's interest in the owner's benefit are identifiable from the trust instrument.
  4. The trustee of the trust provides the IRA custodian or trustee with the documentation required by that custodian or trustee. The trustee of the trust should contact the IRA custodian or trustee for details on the documentation required for a specific plan.
The deadline for the trustee to provide the beneficiary documentation to the IRA custodian or trustee is October 31 of the year following the year of the owner's death.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink10002921
Trust beneficiary is another trust.(p41)
If the beneficiary of the trust (which is the beneficiary of the IRA) is another trust and both trusts meet the above requirements, the beneficiaries of the other trust will be treated as having been designated as beneficiaries for purposes of determining the distribution period.
Note.The separate account rules, discussed earlier, cannot be used by beneficiaries of a trust.
Tax Tip
You may want to contact a tax advisor to comply with this complicated area of the tax law.
taxmap/pubs/p590-010.htm#en_us_publink1000230798

Annuity distributions from an insurance company.(p41)

rule
Special rules apply if you receive distributions from your traditional IRA as an annuity purchased from an insurance company. See Regulations sections 1.401(a)(9)-6 and 54.4974-2. These regulations can be found in many libraries, IRS offices, and online at IRS.gov.