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IRS.gov Website
Publication 596
taxmap/pubs/p596-004.htm#en_us_publink1000297438

Rule 4—You Must Be a U.S. Citizen or Resident Alien All Year

rule
If you (or your spouse, if married) were a nonresident alien for any part of the year, you cannot claim the earned income credit unless your filing status is married filing jointly. You can use that filing status only if one spouse is a U.S. citizen or resident alien and you choose to treat the nonresident spouse as a U.S. resident. If you make this choice, you and your spouse are taxed on your worldwide income. If you need more information on making this choice, get Publication 519, U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens. If you (or your spouse, if married) were a nonresident alien for any part of the year and your filing status is not married filing jointly, enter "No" on the dotted line next to line 66a (Form 1040) or in the space to the left of line 42a (Form 1040A).