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IRS.gov Website
Publication 597
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104515

Personal Services(p2)

rule
A U.S. citizen or resident who is temporarily present in Canada during the tax year is exempt from Canadian income taxes on pay for services performed, or remittances received from the United States, if the citizen or resident qualifies under one of the treaty exemption provisions set out below.
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104516

Income from employment (Article XV).(p2)

rule
Income U.S. residents receive for the performance of dependent personal services in Canada (except as public entertainers) is exempt from Canadian tax if it is not more than $10,000 in Canadian currency for the year. If it is more than $10,000 for the year, it is exempt only if:
  1. The residents are present in Canada for no more than 183 days in any 12-month period beginning or ending in the year concerned, and
  2. The income is not paid by, or on behalf of, a Canadian resident and is not borne by a permanent establishment in Canada.
Tax Tip
Whether there is a permanent establishment in Canada is determined by the rules set forth in Article V.
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000126056

Example.(p2)

You are a U.S. resident employed under an 8-month contract with a Canadian firm to install equipment in their Montreal plant. During the calendar year you were physically present in Canada for 179 days and were paid $16,500 (Canadian) for your services. Although you were in Canada for not more than 183 days during the year, your income is not exempt from Canadian income tax because it was paid by a Canadian resident and was more than $10,000 (Canadian) for the year.
Pay received by a U.S. resident for work regularly done in more than one country as an employee on a ship, aircraft, motor vehicle, or train operated by a U.S. resident is exempt from Canadian tax.
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000126057

Income from self-employment (Article VII).(p2)

rule
Income from services performed (other than those performed as an employee) are taxed in Canada if they are attributable to a permanent establishment in Canada. This income is treated as business profits, and deductions similar to those allowed under U.S. law are allowable.
If you carry on (or have carried on) business in both Canada and the United States, the business profits are attributable to each country based on the profits that the permanent establishment might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate person engaged in the same or similar activities. The business profits attributable to the permanent establishment include only those profits derived from assets used, risks assumed, and activities performed by the permanent establishment.
You may be considered to have a permanent establishment if you meet certain conditions. For more information, see Article V (Permanent Establishment) and Article VII (Business Profits).
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104517

Public entertainers (Article XVI).(p2)

rule
The provisions under income from employment or income from self-employment do not apply to public entertainers (such as theater, motion picture, radio, or television artistes, musicians, or athletes) from the United States who receive more than $15,000 in gross receipts in Canadian currency, including reimbursed expenses, from their entertainment activities in Canada during the calendar year. However, this provision for public entertainers does not apply (and the other provisions will apply) to athletes participating in team sports in leagues with regularly scheduled games in both the United States and Canada.
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104518

Compensation paid by the U.S. Government (Article XIX).(p2)

rule
Wages, salaries, and similar income (other than pensions) paid to a U.S. citizen by the United States or any of its agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions for discharging governmental functions are exempt from Canadian income tax.
The exemption does not apply to pay for services performed in connection with any trade or business carried on for profit by the United States, or any of its agencies, instrumentalities, or political subdivisions.
taxmap/pubs/p597-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104519

Students and apprentices (Article XX).(p2)

rule
A full-time student, apprentice, or business trainee who is in Canada to study or acquire business experience is exempt from Canadian income tax on remittances received from any source outside Canada for maintenance, education, or training. The recipient must be or must have been a U.S. resident immediately before visiting Canada.
An apprentice or business trainee can claim this exemption only for a period of one year from the date the individual first arrived in Canada for the purpose of training.