skip navigation

Search Help
Navigation Help

Tax Map Index
ABCDEFGHI
JKLMNOPQR
STUVWXYZ#

International
Tax Topic Index

Affordable Care Act
Tax Topic Index

Forms
Publications

Comments
About Tax Map

IRS.gov Website
Publication 925
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104650

Comprehensive Example(p12)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
The following example shows how to report your passive activities. In addition to Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, Charles and Lily Woods use Form 8582 (to figure allowed passive activity deductions), Schedule E (to report rental activities and partnership activities), Form 4797 (to figure the gain and allowable loss from assets sold that were used in the activities), and Form 8949 and Schedule D (to report the sale of partnership interests).
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104651

General Information(p12)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily are married, file a joint return, and have combined wages of $132,000 in 2013. They own interests in the activities listed below. They are at risk for their investment in the activities. They did not materially participate in any of the business activities. They actively participated in the rental real estate activities in 2013 and all prior years. Charles and Lily are not real estate professionals.
  1. Activity A is a rental real estate activity. The income and expenses are reported on Schedule E. Charles and Lily's records show a loss from operations of $15,000 in 2013. Their records also show a gain of $2,776 from the sale in January 2013 of section 1231 assets used in the activity and not subject to section 1245 or 1250 recapture. The section 1231 gain is reported in Part I of Form 4797 and is identified as being from a passive activity (FPA). For 2012, they completed the worksheets for Form 8582 and calculated that $6,667 of Activity A's Schedule E loss for 2012 was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over to 2013 as a prior year unallowed loss and will be used to figure the allowed loss for 2013.
  2. Activity B is a rental real estate activity. Its income and expenses are reported on Schedule E. Charles and Lily's records show a loss from operations of $11,600 in 2013. For 2012, they completed the worksheets for Form 8582 and calculated that $8,225 of Activity B's Schedule E loss for 2012 was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over to 2013 as a prior year unallowed loss and will be used to figure the allowed loss for 2013.
  3. Partnership #1 is a trade or business activity and is not a publicly traded partnership (PTP). Partnership #1 reports a $4,000 distributive share of its 2013 profits to Charles and Lily in box 1 of Schedule K-1 (Form 1065), Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. They report that profit on Schedule E. For 2012, they completed the worksheets for Form 8582 and calculated that $2,600 of their distributive share of the loss from Partnership #1 in 2012 was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over to 2013 as a prior year unallowed loss and will be used to figure the allowed loss for 2013.
  4. Partnership #2 is a trade or business activity and also a PTP. In December 2013, Charles and Lily sold their entire interest in Partnership #2. To indicate they made an entire disposition of a passive activity, they enter EDPA on the appropriate lines. They do not report that sale on Form 8582 because Partnership #2 is a PTP. They recognize a long-term capital gain of $15,300 ($25,300 selling price minus $10,000 adjusted basis). They report the transaction in Part II of Form 8949 and check box F. The selling price and adjusted basis from this transaction are combined with their other transactions for 2013 and carried to Schedule D (Form 1040), Part II, line 10. The partnership reports a $1,200 distributive share of its 2013 losses to them in box 1 of Schedule K-1 (Form 1065). They report that loss on Schedule E. For 2012, they followed the instructions for Form 8582 and calculated that $2,445 of their distributive share of Partnership #2's 2012 loss was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over from 2012 and reported on Schedule E as a loss for 2013. (For a discussion of PTPs, see the instructions for Form 8582.)
  5. Partnership #3 is a single trade or business activity and is not a PTP. Charles and Lily's distributive share of partnership losses for 2013 reported in box 1 of Schedule K-1 (Form 1065) is $6,000. Charles and Lily sold their entire interest in Partnership #3 in November 2013. To indicate they made an entire disposition of a passive activity, they enter EDPA on the appropriate lines. They report the $15,000 selling price and $11,000 adjusted basis in Part II of Form 8949. They check box F on Form 8949 because they did not receive a Form 1099-B. The amounts reported are combined with their other transactions and carried to Schedule D (Form 1040), Part II, line 10.For 2012, they completed the worksheets for Form 8582 and calculated that $3,000 of their distributive share of the partnership's loss for 2012 was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over to 2013 as a prior year unallowed Schedule E loss.
  6. Partnership #4 is a trade or business activity that is a limited partnership. Charles and Lily are limited partners who did not meet any of the material participation tests. Their distributive share of 2013 partnership loss, reported in box 1 of Schedule K-1 (Form 1065), is $2,400. For 2012, they completed the worksheets for Form 8582 and calculated that $1,500 of their distributive share of loss for 2012 was disallowed by the passive activity rules. That loss is carried over to 2013 as a prior year unallowed loss and will be used to figure the allowed loss for 2013.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104652

Step One—Completing the Tax Forms Before Figuring the Passive Activity Loss Limits(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
For 2013, Charles and Lily complete the forms they usually use to report income or expenses from their activities. They enter their combined wages, $132,000, on Form 1040. They complete Form 8949, Part II, with the information from the sales of Partnerships #2 and #3. Because they did not receive a Form 1099-B, they check box F at the top of Part II and use one Form 8949. They carry the totals from line 4 of Form 8949 (sales price of $40,300, and cost or other basis of $21,000) to line 10 of Schedule D (Form 1040). The completed line 10 shows a long-term capital gain of $19,300 from the sales of Partnerships #2 and #3. Partnership #2 is a PTP so it is not entered on Form 8582. The disposition of Partnership #3 is a disposition of an entire interest in an activity with an overall loss of $5,000 ($4,000 − $3,000 − $6,000) so that partnership also is not entered on Form 8582. They combine the PTP $1,200 current year loss with its $2,445 prior year loss and report the combined amount in column (f) on Schedule E, Part II, line 28. They also combine the Partnership #3 $6,000 current year loss with its $3,000 prior year loss, and enter the combined amount in column (h) on Schedule E, Part II, line 28, because they have an overall loss from that activity. Normally, current year and prior year losses should be entered on separate lines of Schedule E. For purposes of this example only, the amounts have been combined on one line. They enter the $4,000 profit from Partnership #1 in column (g). Before completing the rest of Schedule E, Part II, they must complete Form 8582 to figure out how much of their losses from Partnerships #1 and #4 they can deduct.
They complete Schedule E, Part I, through line 21. Their rental activities are passive so they must complete Form 8582 to figure the deductible losses to enter on line 22.
They enter the gain from the sale of the section 1231 assets of Activity A on Form 4797.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104653

Step Two—Form 8582
and Its Worksheets(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily now complete Form 8582 including the worksheets that apply to their passive activities. Because they are fully at risk for their investment in the activities, they do not need to complete Form 6198 before Form 8582. (The second part of this publication explains the at-risk rules.)
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104654

Worksheet 1.(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Worksheet 1 is for rental real estate activities with active participation. Charles and Lily enter the gains and losses from Activity A and Activity B on Worksheet 1. They enter all amounts from the activities even though they already reported the gain of $2,776 from Activity A on Form 4797 because all income or loss from these activities must be taken into account to figure the loss allowed.
  1. They write "Activity A" on the first line under "Name of activity." Then they enter:
    1. $2,776 gain in column (a) from Form 4797, line 2, column (g),
    2. ($15,000) loss in column (b) from Schedule E, line 21, column A, and
    3. ($6,667) prior year unallowed loss in column (c) from their 2012 worksheets.
    They combine the three amounts. The result, ($18,891), is an overall loss so they enter it in column (e).
  2. Charles and Lily write "Activity B" on the second line under "Name of activity." Then they enter:
    1. ($11,600) loss in column (b) from Schedule E, line 21, column B, and
    2. ($8,225) prior year unallowed loss in column (c) from their 2012 worksheets.
    Then they combine these two figures and enter the total loss, ($19,825), in column (e).
  3. They separately add the amounts in columns (a), (b), and (c).
    1. They enter $2,776 in column (a) on the Total line and also on Form 8582, Part I, line 1a.
    2. They enter ($26,600) in column (b) on the Total line and also on Form 8582, Part I, line 1b.
    3. They enter ($14,892) in column (c) on the Total line and also on Form 8582, Part I, line 1c.
  4. They combine lines 1a, 1b, and 1c, Form 8582, and put the net loss, ($38,716), on line 1d.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104655

Worksheet 3.(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Partnership #1 and Partnership #4 are nonrental passive activities, so Charles and Lily enter the appropriate information about those activities on Worksheet 3 in the same way they reported their rental activities on Worksheet 1. Then they enter the totals on Form 8582, Part I, lines 3a through 3d.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104656

Reporting income from column (d), Worksheets 1 and 3.(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Activities that have an overall gain in column (d) are not used any further in the calculations for Form 8582. At this point, all income and losses from those activities should be entered on the forms or schedules that would normally be used. Charles and Lily have one activity with an overall gain ($4,000 − $2,600 = $1,400). This is Partnership #1, which is shown in Worksheet 3. They already reported the $4,000 income from this activity on Schedule E, Part II. They now enter the entire $2,600 loss on Schedule E, Part II, as well.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104657

Step Three—Completing
Form 8582(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Next, Charles and Lily complete Form 8582, Part II, to determine the amount they can deduct for their net losses from real estate activities with active participation (Activities A and B). They enter all amounts as though they were positive (without brackets around losses). They then complete Form 8582, Part IV.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104658

Step Four—Completing
Worksheet 4(p13)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily must complete Worksheet 4 because they entered an amount on Form 8582, line 10, and have two activities, each with an overall loss in Worksheet 1, column (e). Worksheet 4 allocates the amount on line 10 (their special allowance for active participation rental real estate activities) between Activity A and Activity B.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104659

Step Five—Completing
Worksheet 5(p14)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Worksheet 5 must be completed if any activity has an overall loss in Worksheet 3, column (e), or a loss in Worksheet 4, column (d) (or Worksheet 1, column (e), if Worksheet 4 was not needed). This worksheet allocates the unallowed loss among the activities with an overall loss. Charles and Lily complete Worksheet 5 with the activities from Worksheet 4 and the one activity showing a loss in Worksheet 3, column (e). They write the name of each activity and the schedule or form and the line number on which each loss will be reported in the two left columns of Worksheet 5.
  1. In column (a), they enter the losses from Worksheet 3, column (e) and Worksheet 4, column (d). These losses are entered as positive numbers, not in brackets. They add the numbers and enter the total, $36,943, on the Total line.
  2. They divide each of the losses in column (a) by the amount on the column (a) Total line, and enter each result in column (b). The ratios must total 1.00.
  3. Now they use the computation worksheet for column (c) (see the worksheet in the instructions for Form 8582) to figure the unallowed loss to allocate in column (c).
    1. On line A of the computation worksheet, they enter the amount from line 4 of Form 8582, $41,216, as a positive number.
    2. On line B, they enter the amount from line 10 of Form 8582, $5,673.
    3. They subtract line B from line A and enter the result, $35,543, on line C. This is the total unallowed loss.
They multiply line C, $35,543, by each of the ratios in column (b) and enter the results in column (c). These amounts are the unallowed losses from each activity and must add up to $35,543.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104660

Step Six—Using
Worksheets 6 and 7(p14)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily now decide whether they must use Worksheet 6, Worksheet 7, or both to figure their allowed losses. If the loss from any activity entered on Worksheet 5 is reported on only one form or schedule, then Worksheet 6 is used for that activity. If an activity has a loss that is reported on two or more schedules or forms (for example, a loss that must be reported partly on Schedule C and partly on Form 4797), Worksheet 7 is used for that activity. See Allocation within loss activities, earlier. All of the activities Charles and Lily entered on Worksheet 5 will be reported on Schedule E. Therefore, they use Worksheet 6 to figure the allowed loss for each activity.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104661

Worksheet 6.(p14)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
They complete Worksheet 6 with the activities from Worksheet 5.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104662

Reporting allowed losses.(p14)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily enter their allowed losses from Activities A and B on Schedule E, Part I, line 22, because these are rental properties. They report their allowed loss from Partnership #4 on Schedule E, Part II, line 28D.
taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104663

Step Seven—Finishing the Reporting of the Passive Activities(p14)

For Use in Tax Year 2013
rule
Charles and Lily summarize the entries on Schedule E, Schedule D, and Form 4797, and enter the amounts on the appropriate lines of their Form 1040. They enter:
Charles and Lily are now able to complete their tax return, having correctly limited their losses from their passive activities. taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104664 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104665 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000267269taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104666 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104667 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104668 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104669 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104670 taxmap/pubs/p925-001.htm#en_us_publink1000104671