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Publication 929

Glossary

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Adjusted gross income.(p22)
Gross income (defined later) minus adjustments to income (defined next).
Adjustments to income.(p22)
Deductions that are subtracted from gross income in figuring adjusted gross income. They include deductions for moving expenses, alimony paid, a penalty on early withdrawal of savings, and contributions to an individual retirement arrangement (IRA). Adjustments to income can be taken even if itemized deductions (defined later) are not claimed.
Alternative minimum tax.(p22)
A tax designed to collect at least a minimum amount of tax from taxpayers who benefit from the tax laws that give special treatment to certain kinds of income and allow deductions and credits for certain kinds of expenses.
Capital gain distribution.(p22)
An allocated amount paid to, or treated as paid to, a shareholder by a mutual fund, regulated investment company, or real estate investment trust from its net realized long-term capital gains. This amount is in addition to any ordinary dividend paid to the shareholder. You will receive a statement from the payer if this applies to you.
Dependent.(p22)
A person, other than the taxpayer or the taxpayer's spouse, for whom an exemption (defined later) can be claimed. To be your dependent, a person must be your qualifying child or qualifying relative (both defined later). For more information, see Exemptions for Dependents in Publication 501.
Earned income.(p22)
Salaries, wages, tips, professional fees, and other amounts received as pay for work actually performed.
For purposes of determining a dependent's standard deduction, earned income also includes any part of a scholarship or fellowship grant that the dependent must include in his or her gross income.
For purposes of completing Form 8615, earned income also includes a taxable distribution from a qualified disability trust. It does not include unearned income as defined earlier, under Line 1 (Unearned Income).
Exemption.(p22)
An amount ($3,950 for 2014) that can be subtracted from income in figuring how much income will be taxed. Exemptions generally are allowed for the taxpayer, the taxpayer's spouse, and dependents.
Full-time student.(p22)
A full-time student is a child who during some part of each of any 5 calendar months of the year was enrolled as a full-time student at a school, or took a full-time on-farm training course given by a school or a state, county, or local government agency. A school includes a technical, trade, or mechanical school. It does not include an on-the-job training course, correspondence school, or school offering courses only through the Internet.
Gross income.(p22)
All income from all sources that is not exempt from tax and must be included on your tax return. Gross income is the total of your earned and unearned income.
For purposes of determining whether you must file a return, gross income includes gain from the sale of your main home (even if you can exclude part or all of it) and includes income earned outside the United States (even if you can exclude part or all of it).
Itemized deductions.(p22)
Deductions allowed on Schedule A (Form 1040) for medical and dental expenses, taxes, home mortgage interest and investment interest, charitable contributions, casualty and theft losses, and miscellaneous deductions. They are subtracted from adjusted gross income in figuring taxable income. Itemized deductions cannot be claimed if the standard deduction is chosen.
Net capital gain.(p22)
The excess of net long-term capital gain over any net short-term capital loss. For 2013, this is the smaller of the gain on line 15 or the gain on line 16 of Schedule D (Form 1040). If Schedule D (Form 1040) is not required, net capital gain is the amount of capital gain distributions on Form 1040, line 13; Form 1040A, line 10; or Form 1040NR, line 14.
Net unearned income.(p22)
The total of all unearned income (other than tax-exempt income) reduced by the sum of:
  1. Any adjustments to income (defined earlier) that are related to the unearned income, plus
  2. The larger of:
    1. $1,000 plus the portion of the child's itemized deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 29 (or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 15), that are directly connected with producing the unearned income, or
    2. $2,000.
Qualified dividends.(p22)
Dividends eligible for the lower tax rates that apply to a net capital gain. They are reported to you in box 1b of Form 1099-DIV. You report them on Form 1040 or Form 1040A, line 9b, or Form 1040NR, line 10b. For more information, see Publication 550.
Qualifying child.(p22)
To be your dependent (defined earlier), a person must be either your qualifying child or your qualifying relative (defined next). Generally, a person is your qualifying child if that person:
  • Is your child, stepchild, foster child, brother, sister, stepbrother, stepsister, or a descendant of any of them,
  • Lived with you for more than half of the year,
  • Did not provide more than half of his or her own support for the year,
  • Was under age 19 at the end of the year and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly) (or was under age 24 at the end of the year, a student, and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly), or was any age and permanently and totally disabled), and
  • Did not file a joint return with his or her spouse.
For details, see Exemptions for Dependents in Publication 501.
Qualifying relative.(p23)
To be your dependent (defined earlier), a person must be either your qualifying child (defined earlier) or your qualifying relative. Generally, a person is your qualifying relative if that person:
  • Lives with or is related to you,
  • Does not have $3,950 or more of gross (total) income,
  • Is supported (generally more than 50%) by you, and
  • Is neither your qualifying child nor the qualifying child of anyone else.
For details, see Exemptions for Dependents in Publication 501.
Standard deduction.(p23)
An amount that can be subtracted from adjusted gross income in figuring taxable income. The standard deduction is not used if itemized deductions are claimed.
Support.(p23)
All amounts spent to provide the child with food, lodging, clothing, education, medical and dental care, recreation, transportation, and similar necessities. To figure your child's support, count support provided by you, your child, and others. However, a scholarship received by your child is not considered support if your child is a full-time student. See Publication 501 for details.
Tax year.(p23)
The time period covered by a tax return. Usually this is January 1 to December 31, a calendar year, but taxpayers can elect a fiscal tax year with different beginning and ending dates.
Taxable income.(p23)
Gross income minus any adjustments to income, any allowable exemptions, and either itemized deductions or the standard deduction.
Unearned income.(p23)
Income other than earned income. This is investment-type income and includes interest, dividends, and capital gains (including capital gain distributions), rents, royalties, etc. Distributions of interest, dividends, capital gains, and other unearned income from a trust are also unearned income to a beneficiary of the trust. However, for purposes of completing Form 8615, a taxable distribution from a qualified disability trust is considered earned income.
Unrecaptured section 1250 gain.(p23)
Generally, any part of your net capital gain from selling section 1250 property (real property) that is due to depreciation. For details, see Publication 550.
28% rate gain.(p23)
Gain from the sale of collectibles and, generally, the taxable part of your gain from the sale of qualified small business stock held more than 5 years. For details, see the instructions for Schedule D (Form 1040).
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024806

How To Get Tax Help(p23)

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Do you need help with a tax issue or preparing your tax return, or do you need a free publication or form?
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024807

Preparing and filing your tax return.(p23)

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Find free options to prepare and file your return on IRS.gov or in your local community if you qualify.
The Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program offers free tax help to people who generally make $53,000 or less, persons with disabilities, the elderly, and limited-English-speaking taxpayers who need help preparing their own tax returns. The Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) program offers free tax help for all taxpayers, particularly those who are 60 years of age and older. TCE volunteers specialize in answering questions about pensions and retirement-related issues unique to seniors.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024808

Getting answers to your tax law questions.(p23)

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IRS.gov and IRS2Go are ready when you are—24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024809

Tax forms and publications.(p24)

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You can download or print all of the forms and publications you may need on www.irs.gov/formspubs. Otherwise, you can: You should receive your order within 10 business days.
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Where to file your tax return.(p24)

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taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024811

Getting a transcript or copy of a return.(p24)

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taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024812

Using online tools to help prepare your return.(p24)

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Go to IRS.gov and click on the Tools bar to use these and other self-service options.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024813

Understanding identity theft issues.(p24)

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taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024814

Checking on the status of a refund.(p24)

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taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024815

Making a tax payment.(p24)

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You can make electronic payments online, by phone, or from a mobile device. Paying electronically is safe and secure. The IRS uses the latest encryption technology and does not store banking information. It’s easy and secure and much quicker than mailing in a check or money order. Go to IRS.gov and click on the Payments tab or the "Pay Your Tax Bill" icon to make a payment using the following options.
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What if I can’t pay now?(p24)

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Click on the Payments tab or the "Pay Your Tax Bill" icon on IRS.gov to find more information about these additional options.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024817

Checking the status of an amended return.(p24)

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Go to IRS.gov and click on the Tools tab and then Where’s My Amended Return?
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024818

Understanding an IRS notice or letter.(p24)

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Enter "Understanding your notice" in the search box on IRS.gov to find additional information about your IRS notice or letter.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024819

Visiting the IRS.(p24)

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Locate the nearest Taxpayer Assistance Center using the Office Locator tool on IRS.gov. Enter "office locator" in the search box. Or choose the "Contact Us" option on the IRS2Go app and search Local Offices. Before you visit, use the Locator tool to check hours and services available.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024820

Watching IRS videos.(p24)

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The IRS Video portal www.irsvideos.gov contains video and audio presentations on topics of interest to individuals, small businesses, and tax professionals. You’ll find video clips of tax topics, archived versions of live panel discussions and Webinars, and audio archives of tax practitioner phone forums.
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Getting tax information in other languages.(p24)

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For taxpayers whose native language is not English, we have the following resources available.
  1. Taxpayers can find information on IRS.gov in the following languages.
    1. Spanish.
    2. Chinese.
    3. Vietnamese.
    4. Korean.
    5. Russian.
  2. The IRS Taxpayer Assistance Centers provide over-the-phone interpreter service in over 170 languages, and the service is available free to taxpayers.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024822

The Taxpayer Advocate Service Is Here To Help You(p25)

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taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024823

What is the Taxpayer Advocate Service?(p25)

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The Taxpayer Advocate Service (TAS) is an independent organization within the Internal Revenue Service that helps taxpayers and protects taxpayer rights. Our job is to ensure that every taxpayer is treated fairly and that you know and understand your rights under the Taxpayer Bill of Rights.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024824

What Can the Taxpayer Advocate Service Do For You?(p25)

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We can help you resolve problems that you can’t resolve with the IRS. And our service is free. If you qualify for our assistance, you will be assigned to one advocate who will work with you throughout the process and will do everything possible to resolve your issue. TAS can help you if:
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How Can You Reach Us?(p25)

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We have offices in every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Your local advocate’s number is in your local directory and at www.taxpayeradvocate.irs.gov. You can also call us at 1-877-777-4778.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024826

How Can You Learn About Your Taxpayer Rights?(p25)

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The Taxpayer Bill of Rights describes ten basic rights that all taxpayers have when dealing with the IRS. Our Tax Toolkit at www.taxpayeradvocate.irs.gov can help you understand what these rights mean to you and how they apply. These are your rights. Know them. Use them.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024827

How Else Does the Taxpayer Advocate Service Help Taxpayers?(p25)

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TAS works to resolve large-scale problems that affect many taxpayers. If you know of one of these broad issues, please report it to us at www.irs.gov/sams.
taxmap/pubs/p929-010.htm#en_us_publink100024828

Low Income Taxpayer Clinics(p25)

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Low Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs) serve individuals whose income is below a certain level and need to resolve tax problems such as audits, appeals, and tax collection disputes. Some clinics can provide information about taxpayer rights and responsibilities in different languages for individuals who speak English as a second language. To find a clinic near you, visit www.irs.gov/litc or see IRS Publication 4134, Low Income Taxpayer Clinic List.