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Publication 598

Disposition of property received from taxable subsidiary and used in unrelated business. (p15)

A taxable 80%-owned subsidiary corporation of one or more tax-exempt entities is generally subject to tax on a distribution in liquidation of its assets to its exempt parent (or parents). The assets are treated as if sold at fair market value.
Tax-exempt entities include organizations described in sections 501(a), 529, and 115, charitable remainder trusts, U.S. and foreign governments, Indian tribal governments, international organizations, and similar non-taxable organizations.
A taxable corporation that transfers substantially all of its assets to a tax-exempt entity in a transaction that otherwise qualifies for nonrecognition treatment must recognize gain on the transaction as if it sold the assets at fair market value. However, such a transfer isn’t taxable if it qualifies as a like-kind exchange under section 1031 or an involuntary conversion under section 1033. In such a case the built-in appreciation is preserved in the replacement property received in the transaction.
A corporation that changes status from taxable to tax-exempt is treated generally as if it transferred all of its assets to a tax-exempt entity immediately before the change in status (thus subjecting it to the tax on a deemed sale for fair market value). This rule doesn’t apply where the taxable corporation becomes exempt within 3 years of formation, or had previously been exempt and within several years (generally a period of 3 years) regains exemption, unless the principal purpose of the transactions is to avoid the tax on the change in status.
In the transactions described above, the taxable event is deferred for property that the tax-exempt entity immediately uses in an unrelated business. If the parent later disposes of the property, then any gain (not in excess of the amount not recognized) is included in the parent's unrelated business taxable income. If there is partial use of the assets in unrelated business, then there is partial recognition of gain or loss. Property is treated as disposed if the tax-exempt entity no longer uses it in an unrelated business.
Losses on the transfer of assets to a tax-exempt entity are disallowed if part of a plan with a principal purpose of recognizing losses.